Craig Eisele on …..

November 10, 2015

Living in a Sad World of Jaded and Twisted Minds

I want to be around people who dream and do things

What has happened to society where normal narrow-mindedness and ignorance has been enhanced by false assumptions of others and their intentions and twisted sick minds and jaded  their ability to think or believe in the genuineness of people and their attitudes towards people they do not personally know.

Stereotyping! What everyone thinks is wrong but everyone does to one extent or another.

Stereotyping is a human being’s way of dealing with a complex world. It is a way to deal with things as grouped into categories so as not to have to differentiate  especially when time or energy is a consideration.  It fails sort out “exceptions” to one’s individual perceptions that have been learned or socially reinforced.  The individual  that has been stereotyped ceases to exist to the observer outside the established stereotype that has been galvanized.

Stereotyping can be seen in education. For example when someone says “Animals that live in the water get their oxygen through gills” … Except when they don’t ! Thus breaking the lumped sum grouping of all animals that live in water into subcategories such as Whales, Sea Otters, and even  a sub species of fish that can breathe OUT of water as well as through gills. The Failure to differentiate the various animals that live in water caused the initial adoption of the stereotype of animals that live in the water.

Racial Stereotypes are the most common form of injustice and ignorance in the world today.. followed closely by Religious stereotypes.

Gender, job categories, even hobbies of individuals are often used to clump people into groups so that the average human being can make sense of the world they live in. Yet we all know how damaging stereotypes can be and how often it leads to misjudging people.. yet we still use this biased, judgemental and inaccurate manner to form opinions even before that person can open their mouth. Even then accents, stuttering,  language skills  etc can further propagate the false narrative a person makes about another.

For the most part, however wrong it may be, it can have little effect on people who are not interacting with each other in any manner.

Physical beauty is subjective… and often entwined with a Personal “Experience” base. What someone is exposed to can steer their definition of beauty. In one Eastern European Country a man with a larger stomach is deemed more attractive than say in the USA where a man with Abs is sexy. A woman who has some heft and girth is very sexy and attractive in some countries while in others the preference is for slim. Complexion  and melanin content is also a measurement of attractiveness in many cultures and well as many SUB cultures. (one of the hings I found worthy of note many years ago (pre internet) was discrimination n the African-American Community based in the darkness of complexion)  In one African Tribe how white a man’s teeth  and how big his eyes are the most important physical characteristics to attract a woman.

Physical beauty is a subjective judgement. Age however is not. Age may be the most hurtful stereotype a person will face as they accumulate years of existence. When you turn 30 people start calling you sir or ma’am . The reinforcement of this age  defining one’s ability to contribute to society or even enter into a relationship causes many people to accept their lower status  as feeble or past the prime of contributing to society any longer.

As a side note it should be noted that while the internet is a vast wealth of information, it is also a greater source of bigotry, discrimination and stereotype validation and also responsible for the extensive amount of “jaded and twisted” mentality I see.  A blessing and a curse for Society, it is also a haven for cowards to say things they are not held accountable for in any meaningful way. 

This bodes badly for modern society today. Knowledge once lost is gone forever. Experiences that can be told interactively as opposed wo read have more meaning and value than a writing that has no emotion and no explanation beyond that written word.

Once as people got older they were revered. In many countries in Africa a person with grey hair is honored.. he or she is have thought to have cheated the devil because so few people lived that long. Their experience and knowledge was sought after and the oral literature of the tribes was handed down by their “elders” that sustained the culture. In “advanced societies” today these “older” people are discarded like the wrapping around your processed food.

I am moved today , of all days, to write about this as I am personally hurt by some people’s reactions  to what I have said I want to do when this Hydrogen fuel cell fueling project moves forward. Oddly, or maybe coincidentally, The “stereotype” issue I am dealing with, with individuals is parallel to my inability to get executive’s in the Automotive industry who even look at my project.

Seems there is a belief that unless someone was raised or worked in the automotive sector their entire life that then that person could not know anything that would benefit that industry. In management terms it is called a “halo effect” ~ only hiring and working with like-minded individuals. Yet this is one of the reasons we saw Xerox and Eastman-Kodak shrink so badly and now why people like Elon Musk have had the amount of interest and success  he has had~ simple because he is not a career or traditional  automotive person.

No one can deny that the world has become a terrible place. It has devolved socially. Society is untrusting and will believe the worst of someone before they can or will believe that there are people out there that can be actually trying to do good. Most think “scam” “Fraud” and worse because there are so many stories out there of people like that.

This post is titled “Living in a World of Jaded and Twisted Minds”. And so it has been my experience recently to encounter too many people recently who have relied on the false stereotypes as well and responded from their personal bad experiences that has sadly jaded them from understanding  that sometimes people are real and honest in their intentions. For instance:

Some people think I am a sponsor. I AM a “Sponsor”! But NOT in the way the jaded and twisted minds have stereotyped me. If I can pay for 2 people to go to medical school and actually become doctors I have helped tens of thousands of people not just the financial burden of the people I help. It is an ideal world to help. But some sick minds think it is a ploy for sex or the like. to those people you obviously do not know me! I have been celibate for 10 years PLUS ~not for inability or physical incapacity, but for reasons that few people especially “males” would understand and few women would believe. If all I wanted was to be a sugar daddy for some sugar on the side…. that is easy and close. I do not have to search the globe for that.

NO ONE who knows me would ever even think  let alone believe I was or am a racist. It is inconceivable to me that anyone would make such an ASSUmption. My interest in women of ethnicity different is well documented. My being a father to 5 INTERRACIAL DAUGHTERS has shown me that the need to try to do something more for them and others like them and their mothers is the reason I want to do more. only a person who has been jaded by the people they have met in their lives  would judge me harshly and obviously never attempted to know me in any way.

I have made mistakes in my life. I was catfished once.. which was very difficult at a time I was most vulnerable. yet NEVER was I rude, disrespectful or anything others than a man who “THOUGHT” he had something happening with someone who turned out to be a fraud. 5 years ago this month that I found “her” only to later find out that it was not her.. but a certain amount of “transference” had already taken place and a fondness and appreciation of the real person had already taken place.

Never in those 5 years have I had or tried to make direct contact or through any other people with that person. but to this day I still think she has a creative potential that is exceptional if given the chance beyond the enclave she exists in. Still her Entourage haunts me and disses me with no real legitimacy but their own twisted jaded minds.

I have every intention in giving away a great deal of money. Some say “give it to (this charity or that foundation)  and they can do things. While that is true the individuals I see potential in do not get that advantage from those foundations or charities.

I am 63 years old by the calendar… and most people will judge me based upon their own unreasonable biases and stereotyping. I am too old for them (whatever that means) I am too old to do this or that or be useful anymore let alone enter into any interpersonal relationship with anyone under the age of 60. This raises my blood pressure (not age related). It infuriates me.. how dare anyone judge me by the number of years I have lived and not take the time to see I am probably 80 by knowledge; 45 by maturity; 35 by cultural integration with Millennials and as alive as anyone not married with children can be.  I have traveled to over 70 countries. Raised children with great intellect and with sever disabilities, I speak a little in 9 languages and can even sign.. although I am not good at reading sign language.

I have met presidents, prime ministers and high religious figures and other dignitaries privately around the world.  I am forever a student and lover of information across many spectrums and disciplines where I found I have an ability to incorporate the vastly different resources into more coherent and continuous and relevant plans for my clients and friends. yet because my number of years on this earth is 63 I am pre judged by a stereotype.

This really offends me to no end. One 5 minute conversation with me would change your mind but most are too narrow-minded to even consider such a thing. NOPE.. he is OLD at 63!!!! GTFOH!! and the earth is 6000 years old too right…  This is ignorance I cannot tolerate. I have met 40 year olds who acted older than 70 year olds I have met 50 year olds who were so beat down and tried they cannot live any life at all.  I have alway believed 2 things.. you are as young as you feel and or think and age is literally only a number that has no real bearing on any one individual… THINK before you judge.


Simply put I am a  resource that few have access to and yet a vast wealth of knowledge peppered with just a little bit of understanding and even less wisdom.  Maybe people will see me a little differently now ~ but most likely not. People are reluctant to even consider that maybe they misjudged another human being. it is the hubris of humanity that will cause its downfall. Fewer still will admit it and even less be willing to enter into a dialogue or even a discourse on perceptions and current events.

My Project is one that will help and affect BILLIONS of people around the globe. Even though I am confronted with road blocks every single day in trying to get this a fair evaluation, even though there “system” is closed to outsiders, I will nonetheless make the efforts necessary to make this work  as it is the right project at the right time for all the world.

While the financial rewards are staggering even to me, the good I can do around the globe and for select individuals is more than I can accomplish alone in my lifetime, but I have every intention to try to perpetuate the efforts after I am gone. For those that think I am interested in a side chick or sugar baby, or buying some relationship… the answer is a resounding NO.

But most of you will still think that way. I was always a one woman man, but I am more convinced that with the sick demented minds of the ignorant people in this world , even if I found another person it will be judged badly and if I really cared for her why would I subject her to the sick comments from ignorant people. Hence I am quite content to live alone with my special needs daughter and would rather have no relationship than the wrong one.

If you think this post was directed at you than it probably was. but that does not mean I will not try to help those I want to help even if I am shunned. Whether it be a mother who will then be able to send her child to college with the knowledge she has given him principles of hard work and potential rewards, or a future professional who can help others in the world… my efforts will bear fruit even if some people are skeptical because of the what they allowed the world to do to them.

Remember the title: This post is titled “Living in a World of Jaded and Twisted Minds”. Now you know that THIS has been my experience for some time now. Not only do I encounter the “stereotyping” and jaded disbelief and, by association, disinterest of those in an industry I can help (automotive), but I have had it since my recent post on a few of the people and how I want to help them and others. Maybe… just maybe this post will open a few minds and change a few opinions.. and while I am not very optimistic I had to at least try.

PS: for those of you that love to disparage a person for spelling, know that it is probably my greatest flaw. (followed by seeing the best in people ~  while missing to many bad things~  and being overly generous) BUT I was still able to attend and graduate from Ivy League schools and qualify for Mensa. So curb you criticism and look at yourself before you comment.

things which renew humanity by buddha

November 8, 2015

The Dearth Of Creative Intellect, And My Feeble Way Of Giving Back To Individuals & Society In The Future

I believe there is a dearth of creative intellect in the world today…. especially in the USA. Tech is booming and there are many examples of innovation but mostly I see “me too” technology being presented to the public.

I was mocked recently on why it took 15 years to create my plan for refueling Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. I seems like a reasonable dig at me considering the rapid advances of Technology. Yet one of the reasons it did take so long was because of the pace of technology. No plan can be feasible if it is antiquated before it is implements.  Heuristics change with time and technological advances. What is good data today may be bad tomorrow, but the trend need to be measured and quantified from that data to find solutions. 

I “plan” differently than most. The norm is to have an “idea” and then to build around it. I identify obstructions that impede what others are trying to do. I then try to find solution to those obstructions and am constantly redefining the “problems” to find better and more inclusive solutions. Then attempt to find who would lose or object to the potential solutions I have found. I then redefine the problem again and find either alternative solutions or expand them to accommodate and thereby neutralize these impediments. The methodology is a hybrid of “Social System Sciences” . It is a long and complicated process that is always evolving

It is a combination of an art and a science. The science analyzes the plan and issues along with those who benefit and who would be potentially hurt . The art is in crafting a solution that would somehow turn distractions into supporters. In most cases the solution is in “disrupting” the existing and commonly used dynamics of consumers and providers… that is also what can be termed as Changing or shifting Paradigms depending on how radical the solutions may be.

A shifting Paradigm might be the switch from Cranking your engine by hand to an electric starter. or the conversion from “Station Wagon” to a Mini Van… or a gasoline fueled car to a some other form of sticking something into your car such as diesel or Natural gas or Hydrogen. The Changing paradigm is Tesla not using a deal network or a car that can also be a private small plane. “Changing Paradigms” is more radical than “Shifting Paradigms”, yet both are often lumped together as disruptors.

What I am proposing is somewhere in between a Shift in Paradigms and a Change in Paradigms. The change is that you would be able to refuel your vehicle at many more places than “gas stations”  and that your refueling is essentially changing your fuel tank. The new ” Fuel Tank” would become a collection of 6 exchangeable canisters  per vehicle that would be at a guaranteed fixed price (for 5 years) of 10 dollars per canister exchange and you can travel 1,000 miles on 6 canisters. 

Where the art comes in is that one would expect Oil Companies to be against this program.. and even try to block the Tax Credit incentives .. but that was taken into consideration  and as such I can reliably predict that Oil companies will not object or obstruct but will actually actively promote the sale of these hydrogen fueled vehicles.

That this project would create more than 100,000 NEW and FULL TIME jobs as well as help create 40,000 NEW business just added to the cross segment support that this project should receive when launched. 

And I did not stop there. I created a distribution system, and refueling network, a database and logistical system to handle the canisters, Drafted a tax Credit Legislation change that would be FULLY PAID FOR, and even a way to finance this with little money and make it profitable within the first year and even a strategy an international rollout to 2 additional continents during that first year.

When you realize that the Major UN assembly this year had all the major countries of the world acknowledge that there is Climate Change and that the world must reduce their carbon emission by 50% by 2030 you would think this is the ideal project at the ideal time. Even China is diligently trying to reduce their emissions.

When I started this post I was talking about a dearth of creative intellect. Please understand I am not claiming to be any sort of genius.. but I am no fool.  I see the complexity of this world and the difficulty of achieving things that can have real consequences.

When you consider that I had to change this program from Hydrogen to Electric to natural gas and now back to Hydrogen, and the adamant belief of so many people and organizations that feel renewable energy and non-traditional fuels are going to kill this country and whose objections all had to be considered in advance,  it should be understandable why it took so long.

But for all the work I have done, I still must market this business plan without giving away the details and my intellectual property without proper safeguards. and therein lies the rub. Too many people want the information and not willing to compensate. 

All of this brings me to the second reason for this post.

If you have disgraced the above than it is  most likely you will understand the rest of this as I can only assume you have a degree of intellect necessary to see beyond BS and understand insincerity and what it means to have integrity in making life choices that could affect others. 

I have been searching for many years for people who can take over for me after I am gone. For people who can take my earnings from this project (which I freely admit will be considerable) which will almost entirely be placed into a foundation to help global project that will benefit humanity, and can use that form of creative intellect and personal drive and ambition in a good solid way.

I have scoured 10’s of thousands of Facebook profiles, maybe 100 thousand comments on articles and Facebook posts, twitter tweets, and instagrams and more looking for those people. I spend maybe 12 hours a day READING including 2-3 hundred or more articles per day from Wall Street Journal, Financial Times, The Economist, WAshington Post, NY Times.. and even International News sites from BBC to Al Jazeera and Africa Times out of Ghana and regularly click on links from twitter feeds to read about International Politics, International Finance and Marketing, Science and technology (love IFLScience and C-Net) Sociology medical tech and biotech and so much more as the more I read about a wide range of things the more I can see interconnections to various projects around the world.  

Even social issues here in the USA and abroad. I used to retweet to see who would favorite them or like them to see who had similar interests. Alas I have not been successful. I long for good healthy discourse with strong-minded individuals who can and would challenge me and my ideas… Someone who is not myopic and jaded by “traditional” methodologies, who is open to new ideas , who has vision and understands human nature. 

What I have found are people who have potential to make a difference in this world in different ways. A CNA who lifted herself up to administration and did college parties to attain a Bachelor’s degree and bought her own home.. but is saddled with debt and feels that there is no end to her struggle.

Someone who Came from Gambia who wants to be a doctor who was recently given a partial Scholarship to Spelman college in Atlanta. A Cosmetologist  by day and a dancer by night who even in her youth once said ” I would rather someone show me how to make a million dollars than to give it to me.”  

A person who is now 2 years out of High School who is the first in her family to go to college and who wants to be a surgeon but is already struggling financially and may never finish college let alone go to medical school.  A woman who has great creative talent but is distracted by life but is actually growing as she changes her career path in life  

And then one particularly woman I mentioned on my Twitter sometime ago who has taken the hard path to her current success and has been very successful at achieving independence and financial security, but, as with most strong women, there seems to be a lack of strong men to be able to earn her affections. Now she stands at the crossroads of her life and where she wants to go and grow and I would love to see her grow into that distinguished and exceptionally accomplished woman I believe she can be if giving the chance.  This woman is probably the one I am highest on as someone with a future that can make significant difference in this world is given the right opportunities

What each and every one of these people have in common is they are Women and are Black or mixed, Having 5 daughters  all whom are mixed racially as Bi or Tri Racial I have seen the discrimination and lack of opportunity they have first hand. THIS is why I subconsciously at first , found these particular people. Each and every one ha good to great intellect and/or creativity, and whom I believe can make a difference in this world. I Firmly believe these People who are deserving of a lift up or assistance  to achieve and whom I intend to do that when this business  develops,  and whose only obligation to me  would be to pas it on when they are able to in the future. At least ONE of them I would like to have involved in my foundation, and who has a potential to help run my business in the future.

NONE of these people have I told of my future plans,  for in this sick world of fakes and frauds  I would be deemed some crazy fool or worse a stalker as more than half of these women I have never met and most likely never will. For those of you who do not understand, it is like the person who leaves a few thousand dollars for a tip and leaves without saying anything. It is a joy of giving and knowing that you are giving to people in need and or have the potential to give back to society in the future.. and in some cases to show those jaded people, that not everyone in the world wants something FROM them but that some actually want something FOR them. 

I have 4 siblings and only one will receive this benefit as she has been the one who have cared the most for my elderly mother and whose life has been not so great. and only one of my daughters will be invited to participate in one form or another as she has the hardness necessary to both stand up to me and to show me the  evils of people whom I am reluctant to see.  

As others who have acquired  considerable wealth very little will be passed on to my children and I have no wife or significant other who needs to me taken care of after I pass (only my disabled child who will need support for the rest of her natural life) I prefer that things be left to a great good and hope to steer some of that direction before I leave this earth in a half century or so (lol.. I will not live that long hopefully) … 

Some of these Women I have mentioned above,  I have encountered  in my live on a regular basis.. some I have found via Facebook, Twitter and other Comments they may have made. I would follow them or check on them occasionally for over  year looking for every reason to believe they are wrong for this… yet surprisingly while I found flaws (which is perfectly human) I see their basic character from what they write, favorite, like and do on a regular basis.

Not a single one of these, or the dozen or so others I hope to assist, have been observed for less than year with some going on 4 or 5 years. For those that I have had personal contact with, while brief, it was consistent, and sometimes we would broach topics much more serious than the weather or a conversation about my youngest of 5 daughters (who has Autism), Others were found from the many tens of thousands of profiles and comments (such as on Discuss por google plus or even your pinterest accounts that I found on Social Media).

You can fool me for a short period of time with posts but not for long .. especially if you never know I am watching or what I am watching for.  Basically you cannot be a fraud for long on Social media… Eventually your true personality escapes. I have come close to being fooled,  but my method I much like my business planning… looking for the flaws that could make them unworkable.. but in people you cannot fix the real personality you can only wish them well.

I did not care about their Tinder profile or current employment or past fame or issues. I have been more interested in the person’s core as I prepared for a change in my life with this new company launch. I wanted to have a few personal favorites to help/ assist in their lives. Maybe  I should have been as through on selection my former wives as I have been in this pursuit.

Knowing that my endeavors in the future can have a direct effect on someone I have personally selected, as opposed to giving to an organization, is personally satisfying, especially knowing I will not have that kind of time in the near future to be as involved in that personal selection, as my time will be consumed and will even severely limit my reading time and lower my learning curve on events  let alone individuals in the future. It is the downside of what I expect to be my future success. If there is a great deal of money, as I suspect, then my personal contacts will be severely limited and that buffer between me and others will become even greater. The “trade-off” if you will, for having great success.. and a reason for some fear of success.. the loss of anonymity 

Maybe when this is all be a memory those who may have discovered my interest in them (and or worse misunderstood them) will one day see my true purpose. Hopefully those are few and far  between as I really want  what I do to be more of a surprise then an expectation.


November 6, 2015

Making the Impossible Possible

What I am about to tell you may seem almost fantasy land dreams. Some may find it braggadocious . still others hubris. What has been the impediment to making  Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles (HFC) a viable purchase alternative to Gasoline and even Electric vehicles has been the so-called Chicken vs Egg conundrum . While these vehicles are attractive to consumers they will not buy them without an easy way to fill their vehicles and the Automakers will not make enough to develop a realistic Business reason to invest 2-4 million dollars in each new fueling station times the necessary 75-100 thousand fueling stations to make consumers happy and content. Where the incredulous reaction of many is that a NON Automotive person may in fact have developed a way to affect BOTH inside of 24 months. 

I my Ph.D. Program at Wharton School Of Finance at the University of Pennsylvania I basically came to understand that

“If you cannot solve the problem you are facing them you are facing the wrong problem. You must change the definition of the problem to find a working solution.”

 It was using this mantra and over a course of 15 years of research and planning and frustrations and on again off again work that  about 2 years ago I came up with.. and dare I say it.. an Elegant Solution to this “problem”.  What makes it even more palatable is that the previous fuel cells required platinum and the new design has done away with that for a much cheaper alternative. I have done things around the world that many thought were not possible by using the same though process. 

The simple answer to this Fueling problem is multiple light weight canisters that can be exchanged when empty for full ones. If this was the extent of my solution I would be foolish as it is merely a small part of a much grander plan that includes not just a business plan but a Strategy to make the plan work and work for many stakeholders including ones that are not supporting of this plan.. for example big oil companies.. yet by taking their loss into account I have found a way that will not only have them support this plan but actively promote the sale of Hydrogen Fuel Cell vehicles over any other alternative.

I have basic parameters for the canisters.. they need to be lightweight so someone grandmother can lift them. They need to hold 3-4 liters of liquid measurement… however they will only use COMPRESSED Hydrogen.  I have a basic construction model. The people before me wanted to put an aluminum bladder in a Carbon fiber case. But the Aluminum will crack at the pressure I want.. and the carbon fiber alone is porous under high pressure as there are always pin holes even with the gel necessary to make them rigid. yet  have fond the solution. ALL of this I have taken into account and much much more. 

The one problem is that there can only be ONE size/shape canister that must be used by any and all manufactures who will you this methodology to fuel their HFC vehicles. The method of distribution cannot handle multiple sizes HOWEVER as technology changes More hydrogen can be added to canisters in the future. The alternative if for someone else to make an alternative fueling system or use the liquid hydrogen fueling stations at the enormous costs.  

Companies to refill these canisters have already been approached as to their interest . A method of distribution has been copied and adapted from other similar distribution systems that are NOT using fuels but consumer products.  Retail locations and the ability to FIX the price for 5 year have all been calculated out for profitability and suitability as are the display racks for the canisters and how they will be exchanged.

Logistical issues have been planned for and can be adapted from the information system already designed into the Project. Even Customer Service and communications systems have been planned into this model .

It is in my opinion the most developed large-scale “Start-up” business plan of a NEW product and strategy ever devised and the most ambitious roll out ever in modern history of NON tech products. 

Each canister must hold sufficient hydrogen to go 175+ miles. 6 canisters per car will allow 1,000 mile range. 

The project will help create 40,000 NEW business and create 100,000+ NEW Permanent Full time jobs

75 -100,000 filling locations can be operational in roughly 24 months with another 50-100,000 more the following year after start-up and agreements with the Automotive Companies. for approximately 150,000 Filling locations which would be MORE than the number of gasoline stations in the USA. and this is not a pipe dream it can be done a lot easier than most people think 

It will also be able to quickly expand to China and Europe for even more financial Economic benefits

it will facilitate the goal of the UN Resolution that almost every country has signed for 50% reduction in Carbon emissions by 2030.

A Tax credit adjustment to the existing one by EPA has already been outlined with a clear strategy to appeal to BOTH Political parties (Including factions) and it is also designed for a way to FULLY FUND  (aka “pay for) the tax credits that are not currently paid for today. 

There is even a play for Wall Street in this plan. and possibly a way to have off shore profits  held there by large corporations (roughly 2 trillion dollars) repatriated  in a way acceptable to everyone. 

Even the strategy for financing has been worked out to make the entire project  that should generate billions over 5 years cost less than 100 million.. and if I am miserly could be done for less than 50 million… 

The goal was that those affected would not be irreparably harmed and that everyone can share in a  win in this plan. Even Electric Vehicles have been included in the long-term strategy as some fantastic battery technology is on the horizon that can make Electric Vehicles wide-spread inside of 7-10 years for those people who currently cannot plug-in and are looking for easy recharging and with a guarantee that there will be NO loss (Free Replacement) to the consumer when the batteries lose their abilities to charge (which I believe is 80 % of the population)

My problem is as I stated in the beginning.. I am a NON Automotive person… who has no credibility let alone access to the boardroom and the CEO of the Auto Manufactures.. I need 2 companies specifically who can help finalize the dimensions for these 6 canisters to be able to make their fitting into existing Vehicle chassis the simplest and easiest way possible and to make the nozzle in a way that can be easily secured and a possible solenoid to effect a benign electrical impulse to signal the status of the canisters that are inserted. 

The second group of people I need are those who can manage a full lobbying campaign that encompasses all parties needs and benefits. From across the political spectrum to Oil Companies to Wall Street itself there needs to be a  coordinated effort to accomplish this all as quickly as possible even in this election year as both parties can claim something good out of this. Soliciting statements of support from international figures of both political and NGO’s like the UN and even religious edicts from those who support efforts to make the Environment better such as the Pope can all lead to a win across the board and a feel god project launch. 

Who could help me in getting access to high level Corporate people who can also vouch for the thoroughness of this plan? Apple and their interest in cars could be a viable strategic partner as could Google.  While the CEO of Toyota has made a huge commitment to Hydrogen I still have not been able to approach him directly. 

While this may look like I have it all nailed down.. I assure you I am as nervous as a long tail cat in a room full of rocking chairs. I have done so much on this project ALONE.. that I worry I have missed something… but more importantly I am looking for help in getting the word out that this project has been developed. If you can share this to your friends, family and MAYBE it can be picked up by someone who can get the word out I would thank you profusely. If you have questions that will not cause me to “leak” proprietary information I will be happy to answer them. There is a lot I have not shared because it would be too revealing.. all I can say is I have taken this thing inside out and banged it around so much I feel beat up myself.. but i have to say I am not just happy with the final work.. I am proud of it. 

you have the power to make your dreams real

October 29, 2015

101 Things Women Should Know About Guys (In General)

Filed under: Uncategorized — Mr. Craig @ 1:32 pm

While every guy is different here are 101 general things women should know about their guy. 

1. Guys don’t actually actively pursue  good-looking girls. They prefer neat and presentable girls.

2. Guys love flirts.

3. A guy can like you for a minute, and then forget you afterwards.

4. When a guy says he doesn’t understand you, it simply means you’re not thinking the way he is.

5. “Are you doing something?” or “Have you eaten already?” are the first usual questions a guy asks on the phone just to get out from stammering.

6. Guys may be flirting around all day but before they go to sleep, they always think about the girl they truly care about.

7. When a guy really likes you, he’ll disregard all your bad characteristics.

8. Guys go crazy over a girl’s smile.

9. Guys will do anything just to get the girl’s attention.

10. Guys hate it when you talk about your ex-boyfriend.

11. When guys want to meet your parents. Let them.

12. Guys want to tell you many things but they can’t.  And they sure have one habit to gain courage and spirit to tell you many things and it is drinking!

13. Guys cry!!!!!!!! (YES.. real men do cry on occasion) 

14. Don’t provoke the guy to heat up.  Believe me.  He will. 

15. Guys can never dream and hope too much.

16. Guys usually try hard to get the girl who has dumped them, and this makes it harder for them to accept their defeat.

17. When you touch a guy’s heart, there’s no turning back.

18. Giving a guy a hanging message like “You know what?!..uh…never mind!” would make him jump to a conclusion that is far from what you are thinking.

19. Guys go crazy when girls touch their hands.

20. Guys are good flatterers when courting but they usually stammer when they talk to a girl they really like.

21. When a guy makes a prolonged “umm” or makes any excuses when you’re asking him to do you a favor, he’s actually saying that he doesn’t like you and he can’t lay down the card for you.

22. When a girl says “no”, a guy hears it as “try again tomorrow.”

23. You have to tell a guy what you really want before he gets the message clearly.

24. Guys generally are uncomfortable with hate gay men! (insecurity issues) 

25. Guys love their moms.

26. A guy would sacrifice his money for lunch just to get you a couple of roses.

27. A guy often thinks about the girl who likes him. But this doesn’t mean that the guy likes her.

28. You can never understand him unless you listen to him.

29. If a guy tells you he loves you once in a lifetime. He does.

30. Beware. Guys can make gossips scatter through half of the face of the earth faster than girls can.

31. Like Eve was to Adam , girls are guys natural weaknesses.

32. Guys are very open about themselves. (their non emotional side anyway)

33. It’s good to test a guy first before you believe him. But don’t let him wait that long.

34. No guy is bad when he is courting. (he can be good at hiding his bad side) 

35. Guys hate it when their clothes get dirty when on a date. Even a small dot.

36. Guys really admire girls that they like even if they’re not that much pretty.

37. Your best friend, whom your boyfriend seeks help from about his problems with you may end up being admired by your boyfriend.

38. If a guy tells you about his problems, he just needs someone to listen to him. You don’t need to give advice.

39. A usual act that proves that the guy likes you is when he teases you.

40. A guy finds ways to keep you off from linking with someone else.

41. Guys love girls with brains more than girls in miniskirts.

42. Guys try to find the stuffed toy a girl wants but would unluckily get the wrong one.

43. Guys virtually brag about anything.

44. Guys cannot keep secrets that girls tell them.

45. Guys think too much about insignificant stuff.

46. Guys’ fantasies are unlimited. (rarely creative romantics) 

47. Girls’ height doesn’t really matter to a guy but her weight does!

48. Guys tend to get serious with their relationship and become too possessive. So watch out girls!!

49. When a girl makes the boy suffer during courtship, it would be hard for him to let go of that girl.

50. It’s not easy for a guy to let go of his girlfriend after they broke up especially when they’ve been together for 3 years or more.

51. You have to tell a guy what you really want before getting involved with that guy.

52. A guy has to experience rejection, because if he’s too-good-never-been-busted, never been in love and hurt, he won’t be matured and grow up.

53. When an unlikable circumstance comes, guys blame themselves a lot more than girls do. They could even hurt themselves physically.

54. Guys have strong passion to change but have weak will power.

55. Guys are tigers in their peer groups but become tamed pussycats with their girlfriends.

56. When a guy pretends to be calm, check if he’s sweating. You’ll probably see that he is nervous.

57. When a guy says he is going crazy about the girl. He really is.

58. When a guy asks you to leave him alone, he’s just actually saying, “Please come and listen to me.”

59. Guys don’t really have final decisions.

60. When a guy loves you, it brings out the best in him.

61. If a guy starts to talk seriously, listen to him. (Not common) 

62. If a guy has been kept shut or silent, say something.

63. Guys believe that there’s no such thing as love at first sight, but court the girls anyway and then realize at the end that he is wrong.

64. Guys like femininity not feebleness.

65. Guys don’t like girls who punch harder than they do.

66. A guy may instantly know if the girl likes him but can never be sure unless the girl tells him.

67. A guy would waste his time over video games and basketball, the way a girl would do over her romance novels and make-ups.

68. Guys love girls who can cook or bake.

69. Guys like girls who are like their moms. No kidding!

70. A guy has more problems than you can see with your naked eyes.

71. A guy’s friend knows everything about him. Use this to your advantage.

72. Don’t be a snob. Guys may easily give up on the first sign of rejection.

73. Don’t be biased. Try loving a guy without prejudice and you’ll be surprised.

74. Girls who bathe in their eau de perfumes do more repelling than attracting guys.

75. Guys are more talkative than girls are especially when the topic is about girls.

76. Guys don’t comprehend the statement “Get lost” too well.

77. Guys really think that girls are strange and have unpredictable decisions but still love them more.

78. When a guy gives a crooked or pretentious grin at your jokes, he finds them offending and he just tried to be polite.

79. Guys don’t care about how shiny their shoes are unlike girls.

80. Guys tend to generalize about girls but once they get to know them, they’ll realize they’re wrong.

81. Any guy can handle his problems all by his own. He’s just too stubborn to deal with it.

82. Guys find it so objectionable when a girl swears.

83. Guys’ weakest point is at the knee.

84. When a problem arises, a guy usually keeps himself cool but is already thinking of a way out.

85. When a guy is conscious of his looks, it shows he is not good at fixing things.

86. When a guy looks at you, either he’s amazed of you or he’s criticizing you.

87. When you catch him cheating on you and he asks for a second chance, give it to him. But when you catch him again and he asks for another chance, ignore him.

88. If a guy lets you go, he really loves you.

89. If you have a boyfriend, and your boy best friend always glances at you and it obviously shows that he is jealous whenever you’re with your boyfriend, all I can say is your boy best friend loves you more than your boyfriend does.

90. Guys learn from experience not from the romance books that girls read and take as their basis of experience.

91. You can tell if a guy is really hurt or in pain when he cries in front of you!

92. If a guy suddenly asks you for a date, ask him first why. (PAY ATTENTION LADIES) 

93. When a guy says he can’t sleep if he doesn’t hear your voice even just for one night, hang up. He also tells that to another girl. He only flatters you and sometimes makes fun of you.

94. You can truly say that a guy has good intentions if you see him praying sometimes.

95. Guys seek for advice not from a guy but from a girl.

96. Girls are allowed to touch boys’ things. Not their hair!

97. If a guy says you’re beautiful, that guy likes you.

98. Guys hate girls who overreact.

99. Guys love you more than you love them if they are serious in your relationships.

100. Guys are naturally insecure in sex, love and emotional issues

101. Guys do not like to compete for a girls affections. 

October 25, 2015

A Good .. but Older…. Paper on the State of African Infrastructure

The paper copied below is OLD… but sadly still paints a relatively close and poignant picture of the status of Infrastructure Development. It can be accessed directly in the web at:

We at Trans-African Development have a potential Solution to this dilemma that faces Africa… it is to build a BACKBONE of Infrastructure…. From Major Highways to Electrical transmission Facilities and transmission lines to Fiber Optic and Railroads… but we need the Cooperation of African Nations and Organizations to implement this . I will write more on this int he near future… but for now… this “picture” of African Infrastructure is very revealing.


Infrastructure in Africa: The Record
By: Afeikhena Jerome
University of Ibadan, Nigeria

The views and interpretations in this paper are those of the author and not necessarily those of the African Development Bank.


1. Introduction

In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in infrastructure development and Policy reform in developing economies, with much of the debate centering on efficiency
of use and an increased role for private sector participation in the provision of Infrastructure (Jimenez, 1995; Mody, 1996; Kerf and Smith, 1996; and World Bank,1994). The apparent interest emanates principally from the growing realization that human and physical infrastructure are critical elements for economic growth and poverty reduction. Infrastructure plays a pointed, often decisive-role in determining the overall
productivity and development of a country’s economy, as well as the quality of life of its citizens.

A broader source of interest, however, derives from the generally poor performance of state-owned monopolies, combined with the rapid globalization of the world economies, which has brought into sharp focus the economic costs of inadequate infrastructure and prompted a growing number of developing countries to seek new initiates in promoting competition, private entry and foreign interest in the provision of  Infrastructure.

The term ‘infrastructure’ was coined during the Second World War by military strategists to indicate wide-ranging elements of war logistics. Thereafter, development Economists began to use the term interchangeably with ‘overhead capital’ considered to include: those services without which primary, secondary and tertiary production activities cannot function. In its widest sense, it includes all public services from law and order through education and public health to transportation, communication, power and water supply as well as such agricultural overhead capital as irrigation and drainage systems (Hirschman, 1958: 83).

There is no consensus in the literature on a common definition of infrastructure. What remains indisputable, however, is that is that they share some common characteristics which have hitherto been used to justify state involvement in their provision and financing. These characteristics include scale economies in production, consumption externalities and non-excludability. They are equally not generally tradeable.

Broadly defined, infrastructure refers to all basic inputs into and requirements for the proper functioning of the economy. They are usually grouped into two. The first category is social infrastructure, such as education and health which facilitate the supply if skilled and healthy personnel to manage and operate other resources. They also enhance the economic, political and social empowerment of the populace, with the
attendant positive effects on poverty alleviation and efficient use of national resources.

The second category is often referred to as economic infrastructure. Mody (1997) defines this category of infrastructure as the facilities that provide society with the services necessary to conduct daily life and to engage in productive activities. These include power, transportation, telecommunications, water, sanitation and safe water disposal, among other things.

This report is devoted to the study of the complementary physical infrastructure, comprising telecommunications, power, transport (roads, railways, ports and airports), water supply, and sewerage.

Infrastructure has a pervasive influence on the whole economy.
Telecommunications, electricity and water are used in the production process of virtually every sector of an economy, while transportation is necessary for the distribution of
commodities. The quantity and quality of these services are therefore an important determinant of private sector productivity and output. In fact, there is a strong association
between the availability of certain infrastructure -telecommunications (in particular), power, surfaced roads and safe water – and per capita GDP2. The relationship involves  both the supply side, in terms of the contribution of infrastructure to the generation of higher GDP, and the demand side, as higher incomes in turn generate higher demands for infrastructure services. Infrastructure thus makes an important contribution to expanding output.

Africa trails the rest of the world, both in the extent and quality of infrastructure. Notwithstanding the large amount of scarce economic resources absorbed in the development of infrastructure in Africa, there is clear evidence that the provision of infrastructure has been much below standard both in terms of quantity and quality in relative and absolute terms. Infrastructure bottlenecks continue to exist, particularly in the management of current stock.

Traditionally, infrastructure services have been viewed as public goods and the primary responsibilities for their provision have been entrusted to the government-owned
`natural monopolies’. Consequently, these sectors have become inextricably entangled with the public sector that dominated it. While the performance of government-owned
providers of infrastructure, vary from one country to another, their overall performance in Africa has been very poor. The sector is characterized by operational inefficiency, lack of technological dynamism and poor service to consumers. In addition to their inadequacy, the provision of infrastructural services in most African countries is characterized by high prices compared with per capita incomes and long waiting time (several years in some countries) between the time of application for services and actual connection.

The cost of waste, in terms of forgone economic growth and lost opportunities for poverty reduction and environmental improvements, are unimaginably high. Poor infrastructure is a major obstacle to the region’s economic growth, and adversely affectsthe living standards of its people. Inadequate infrastructure adversely impacts on health, education and the capacity for effective governance as well as on the ability of industries to compete in international markets. Most evaluations of structural adjustment programmes in Africa point to deficiencies in infrastructure as a major cause of poor
supply response in economies under reform (Ghura and Hadjimichael, 1996).

The provision of efficient infrastructure is important for the development of the continent particularly in view of the fact that many of its countries are landlocked. As shown in recent literature on the economics of geography, nearly all landlocked countries in the world are poor, except a handful in Western Europe that are closely integrated into the EC via an efficient infrastructure which facilitates low-cost trade.

This chapter takes stock of the state of infrastructure in Africa, investigates more deeply the root causes of the present unsatisfactory outcomes and explores the strategies and policies that can be instituted to improve infrastructure delivery in the pursuit of the overarching objectives of private-sector-led growth and poverty reduction. Accordingly, the paper is divided into four sections. The database on infrastructure in Africa is presented in section 2 while the record of infrastructure service is the focus of section 3.
An appraisal of the causal factors in the dismal performance is conducted in section 4.

2. Data on Infrastructure in Africa

Data on the different types of infrastructure in Africa are sketchy and difficult to find in one publication. An extensive database of physical infrastructure stock for a cross-section
of 102 countries have been compiled and presented in the Appendix. The database has been compiled for 53 African countries by region according to ADB classification. To
allow for comparison, similar data is presented for 17 countries in Latin America, 8 countries in South East Asia and 24 OECD countries. The database comprises six measures:

. Population, GNP per capita and percentage of population with access to safe water and sanitation;

. Kilometres of paved roads;

. Kilometres of railway lines;

. Statistics on the power sector;

. Telecommunication statistics; and

. Information technology.

Apart from physical stocks, the database also provides some measures of the quality of infrastructure.

White It is imperative to sound a note of caution on these global statistics given their comparative basis, it should be noted, however, that the data provides a rough, albeit, useful
basis for analyzing the development of infrastructure on a comparative global and regional basis. The data reveals a strong association between infrastructure capacity and level of development. Countries with lower income level are associated with lower levels of infrastructure capacity and service provision. It should be borne in mind that the
performance of most African countries in all the indicators is quite dismal.

3. The Record of Infrastructure in Africa

It is crucial to examine in greater details the situation in the major infrastructure sub-sectors with a view to highlighting the peculiarities of each sub-sector. For each type of infrastructure , the section examines the state of the available networks, tariffs charged, supply and demand patterns, service quality; industry bottlenecks, and environmental

3.1 Telecommunications

Telecommunications infrastructure lies at the heart of the information economy. Countries lacking modern telecommunications system cannot compete effectively in the
global economy. The telecommunications industry in Africa has made limited progress despite concerted efforts and programs aimed at modernizing and expanding the sub-sector.

3.1.1 Networks

Despite the giant strides which a number of African countries have taken in reforming the telecommunications sub-sector in recent years, telecommunication coverage in Africa is amongst the lowest in the world. There are more telephones in Brazil than the whole of Africa. While Brazil has 15,105.9 main telephone lines, Africa has only 13, 695.1 main telephone lines. Africa accounts for only two per cent of telephone main telephone lines globally as shown in chart 1. Low network densities, long waiting
Source : International Telecommunication Union.

Chart 1: Main telephone lines

times for access to services, and clear willingness of some users to pay for access to the service illustrate the significant shortage of telecommunications services in the region.

The most common measure of telecommunications access is teledensity or the number of main telephone lines per 100 inhabitants. In 1996, teledensity varied from 0.08 in
Democratic Republic of Congo to 34.01 in Reunion. Africa averages 1.85 compared to 30.38 in the Americas, 6.02 in Asia, 30.60 in Europe and 40.39 in Oceania.

There are substantial differences among the African sub-regions, with four countries currently in the forefront; namely, Reunion 34.01, Seychellis 19.51, Mauritius 16.21 and
South Africa 10.2 . The laggards are sub -Saharan African countries with an average teledensity of 0.52. As many as 34 countries in Africa still have a teledensity of less than 1. These differences among countries are associated in part with variations in per capita GDP  In part, GDP per capita may serve as an indicator of the extent of a country’s rural population, which tended to receive fewer infrastructure services than urban areas did. It may also reflect the affordability of services. However, a nation’s teledensity is usually quoted as an average thus masking regional variability. For example, the distribution of telephone networks in South Africa presents striking internal contrasts. The average teledensity in South Africa is 10.05, but on a provisional level, this ranges between 22 in Gauteng (the region around Johannesburg and Pretoria) and 2 in the Northern pronvince.

The distribution of telecommunications services is biased in most African countries in favour of the urban areas, which account for over 80 per cent of the services, while the
rural areas, where over 80 per cent of the population reside, enjoy 20 per cent of the service.
About 72.9 per cent of telecommunications mainlines were in urban areas in 1995 compared to 27.1 per cent in rural areas. Two countries, however, had most of their telephone mainlines located in rural areas. These are Sao-Tome and Principe (87.0 percent) and Central African Rep. (57.0 per cent).

In terms of quality, networks are burdened with a high percentage of outmoded equipment and high fault rates. The information on faults per main lines, a standard measure of service quality, indicates that the average faults per 100 main lines for the region in 1996 was 78.1 compared with an average rate of 8.9 for America, 19.9 for Europe, 43.7 for Asia and 47.8 for Oceania. The recorded fault rates in the region,
however, range widely- from 1.0 (Eritrea) to 937.5(Guinea).

The most effective route to increasing service quality is the installation of digital exchanges. African countries are striving to modernize their systems – albeit at great cost – in order to remain plugged into the global network. Many telecommunications authorities in Africa, especially in those countries undergoing reforms are installing digital technologies and costly equipment in order to become competitive. In the absence of local manufactures, African countries are dependent on industries outside the region for the purchase of telecommunications equipment and spare parts. Such imports are generally made on a non- selective basis of ‘ready-made’ packages with little room for adaptation to local needs through local enterprise and know-how. Consequently, telecommunications services in Africa do not have the usual multiplier effects (via research and development, local manufacturing, services and employment) as they do in other regions of the world.

Table 1:

Comparative Statistics on Telecommunications Indicators in Africa and the Rest of
the World (1996)



Source: International Telecommunication Union

3.1.2 Supply and Demand Patterns

Comparative Telecommunications Statistics for
Africa and the rest of the WorldPer 100 inhabitantMain lines per employeeSatisfied demand (%) 1996Fault per 100 machines peryear

Source: International Telecommunication Union.

Large waiting lists are evident in several African countries, but the demand for telephone connections is in all likelihood considerably higher. A sizable latent demand Lies concealed since prospective users do not even register on waiting lists until there is a realistic chance of receiving a telephone connection. The overall average expected waiting time for services in Africa for 1996 was 3.5 years, the highest in the world, compared with 0.3 in America, 0.7 in Asia and 2.4 in Europe as shown in chart 3. Ten countries recorded a waiting time greater than 10 years. These are Algeria, Eritrea,
Ethiopia, Gambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Sao Tome & Principe, Sierra Leone and Tanzania. With such long waiting times in African economies, there may well be a significant number of discouraged potential subscribers who have not yet joined the
queue for services.

Development of cellular networks in African economies provides one example of customers’ willingness to pay for quick access to reliable services. This willingness is particularly true of businesses and high-income households. While the cellular network penetration rates are still comparatively small, (7.9 per cent of total telephone subscribers in 1996 ranging between 1.1 in Kenya and 18.3 in South Africa), the growth rates in the number of subscribers are considerable in some countries. This level of demand has been achieved despite the fact that charges for cellular services are substantially above those for fixed services in the region and those for cellular services in the EU. Surveys of business users in the region confirm this willingness to pay
for quick access to reliable telecommunications services.4

The introduction of competition has been most notable in mobile cellular and other value-added services, with almost half of the Africa countries allowing more than one provider in these areas. In the majority of markets where cellular mobile services are now provided, private capital has been introduced in the form of joint ventures with state-owned enterprises or stand-alone private ventures


The structure of tariffs falls relatively heavily on businesses and more lightly on households, but the overall level remains low in most countries. In several African countries, there is no clear practice of pricing services, hence rough and ready norms for billing are adopted. Call waiting and forwarding for residential customers remains largely the domain of dominant local providers.

While detailed data on long-distance and international tariffs are not available, average monthly subscription and installation charges for households and businesses
provide some indication of tariff levels and structures. Table 2 presents average monthly subscription charges and connection rates for both household and business consumers by regions in the world. A comparison across these regions reveals that telecommunications tariff in Africa is the lowest in the world relative to both the global average and other
regions in the world. The relatively low levels of tariffs in much of the region limit the extent to which internal cash flows and private finance can be raised for new investments.
Most countries, characterized by underinvestment and low network growth, are unlikely to break out without reform of the tariff structure. As a rule, those countries at more
advanced stages of development have adjusted tariff structures to allow for more balanced charges between households and businesses and have raised the overall level of
tariffs. The need for investment in this sector to expand capacity and improve service quality is substantial. The necessary expansion in networks will not be achieved without
recourse to private finance. However, unlocking this finance will require a commercial approach to telecommunications and credible reform of tariff structures.

Table 2:

Telephone Tariffs in Africa and Other Regions in 1996 (US$)

3.1.4 Reform Activities the Sector

The telecommunications sector in Africa faces a challenging future given the number of internal and international constraints confronting telecommunications administration, and the demand for value-added services by increasingly sophisticated consumers. Many African countries are already committed to reforms in the field of telecommunications,
including promotion of private sector participation. In the past few years, a domino effect has occurred in Africa’s Telecommunications sector resulting in a flurry of reform
activities which put the continent at par with the developments in other regions. Some of the major reforms being carried out include creation of a regulatory environment to accommodate private companies, institution of well-defined tariff regimes, privatization of state-owned telecommunications operations; and licensing independent telephone companies to provide value added services.

Reform efforts across the region focused initially upon the separation of the telecommunications and postal operations and, subsequently, upon the development of separate regulatory agencies. By 1998, 27 countries in Africa had separated their postal and telecommunications operations, and 30 countries had corporatized the primary operator.

In the regulatory sphere, 18 countries across Africa had undertaken the establishment of a separate regulatory agency by 1998. However, most telecommunications regulatory agencies so far created in Africa have limited powers -the
sector ministry retain the authority to issue directives to the regulator, appoint the heads of the agency, and control the agency’s funding. In Uganda, for example, the ministry in
charge of telecommunications is also responsible for tariff approval and the establishment of licence fees, while in Namibia, the operator is responsible for numbering, tariffs and interconnection rates. In many instances, the establishment of the regulatory agency has occurred in tandem with the privatisation process. In other countries, the introduction of
a regulator has occurred prior to the initiation of liberalization and privatisation plans, such as in Botswana, Mauritius, Nigeria, Tanzania and Zambia.

Privatisation of state-owned national carriers in Africa began in 1989 with the sale of the majority of shares in Guinea-Telecom in Guinea-Bissau, and STP/CST of Sao
Tome and Principe in the same year. Between 1989 and 1997, close to 25 per cent partially privatised their state-owned telecommunications operator. In addition, six more countries have initiated, or announced, plan to sell equity stake in their state-owned telecommunication operator to private investors. However, competition in nation-wide basic services is allowed in just two markets, Ghana and Uganda, where second national operator licenses have been issued.

The cumulative effect of these reforms is a substantial increase in telecommunications infrastructure. In 1996, Africa recorded its highest annual growth rate of 10 per cent in telephone main lines. The highest growth rates were recorded by Botswana, the Gambia, Cape Verde and Mauritius. North African countries, however, recorded marginal decline.

3.2 Internet Access
Internet is today one of the most dynamic telecommunication markets in Africa in spite of the fact that the region remains behind the rest of the world in informatics and information
technology, accounting for less than 1 per cent of global spending in the sub-sector.
Over the past five years, the number of African countries with access to the internet has risen dramatically. It was first introduced to Africa through a range of initiatives by national,
international and non-governmental organizations, Internet is now clearly becoming a commercial undertaking with increasing private investment. Most of the countries (47 of the 54 nations) in the region have developed some form of Internet access in capital cities, either through local dialup, store and forward e-mail with a gateway to the internet, or through a full leased-line service. About 44 countries and territories have achieved full Internet public access services at least in capital cities. There are only five countries- Comoros, the Republic of Congo, Eritrea, Libya and Somalia that do not have plans for full internet assess.

3.2.1 Network

The key indicators of internet development are: (1) the number of host computers, (2) the number of internet service providers (ISPs) and (3) the number of users.

a. Internet host computers: In 1997, there were 129,326 internet host computers in Africa, of which 122,025 were in South Africa, 3,310 in North Africa and 3, 991 in Sub-
Saharan Africa. The density of internet hosts was 28.16 hosts per 10,000 people in South Africa, 0.25 in North Africa and 0.07 in Sub-Saharan Africa. The average for Africa was

b. Internet Service Providers (ISPs): About half of the countries in Africa allow competition and have more than one ISP. Of the 300 or so ISPs in the region, around 200
offer full internet services. South Africa has the highest concentration of ISPs with nearly 80
service providers.

c. Internet Users: In 1997, there were 896,120 Internet users on the continent of Africa, in addition to 800,000 in South Africa. This is equivalent to approximately six users for each
host computer. The number of users averages about one user per 5,000 people (excluding South Africa with a rate of one to 65 people), compared to a global figure of one internet
user per 45 people; or one per 6 in Europe and North America.

3.2.2 Tariffs

The high price of internet connections and personal computer (PCs) relative to income is a major inhibiting factor to a wider use of internet in Africa.. Estimated PCs per 100 inhabitants in 1996 was just 0.66 compared with 15.87 in America, 9.56 in Europe and 30.31 in Oceania. Considering the lower incomes of most African countries, it is unrealistic to expect widespread Internet usage on the continent. As the internet market in Africa becomes increasingly liberalized, and market forces take firmer root, prices will be driven lower owing to increasing competition among ISPs, the privatisation of state-owned telecommunications corporations, and the liberalization of domestic telephone markets.

3.2.3 Bottlenecks

Internet use in Africa is limited. The basic obstacles in the path of rapid Internet growth are the lack of telecommunication infrastructure, and the relatively high hardware and transmission costs. Although many countries have taken major steps to improve their infrastructure, great variation still remains between regions and countries; rural areas, where 70-80 per cent of the population resides, are largely uncovered by telephone service.
International internet bandwidth is lacking because international leased lines are costly and crowded, and peering between ISPs is limited. Proposals, such as the Africa One and SAFE- undersea fibre-optic cables, or wireless technologies including WLL, VSAT, HF radio and GMPCS systems, or stratospheric Helium supported balloons promise to extend internet services to both urban and rural areas. Hardware is much more expensive in Africa relative to many other parts of the world due to high import tariffs and little price competition.

An increasing number of countries are allowing internet service provider (ISP) competition, even though more than ten countries still hold monopoly control. PTOs have
assumed a monopoly position especially in countries where the Public Telecommunications Operator (PTO) established the international internet backbone with some exceptions, such
as South Africa, Mozambique and Zambia. Foreign internet service providers are increasingly entering into Africa and are expected to gain market share from the local companies. Open entry for ISPs, however, is not enough to ensure rapid Internet growth. An appropriate, “Internet-friendly” regulatory framework is also important to achieve effective
entry, survival and growth of ISPs. High license fees, for example, can limit the entry of ISPs.

3.3 Transport

Transport constitutes an important sector for the enhancement of economic growth and the socio-economic integration of the African region, particularly the promotion of intra- and extra-African trade. However, despite the efforts made in the past five decades to develop the transport sector in Africa, it has remained inadequate and ineffective. The general lack of repairs and maintenance in infrastructure has led to further deterioration in the sector in recent years, and has, as well, increased the magnitude of its operational problems and costs. The environmental implications of transport policies and projects also received low priority.

However, despite the difficult environment of high operating costs and low capacity utilization, the various sub-sectors of transport have shown some remarkable resilience.

3.3.1 Roads

In Africa, road transport is the most widely used means of transportation. The fragmentary
nature of the railway system and the limitations imposed on the scope of inland water
transport by geographical factors are such that the transport of people and goods by rail and
inland waterways has to be supplemented usually by road transport over long distances. Road Network

An accurate assessment of the development of the road networks in African countries is made difficult by the lack of reliable statistical information and the compelling necessity to employ, for analytical purposes, surrogate indicators, such as aggregate lengths, classified according to operating conditions, instead of such standard indices as ton-kilometre or passenger/ kilometre.

Africa had approximately 311,184 kilometers of paved roads in 1991 (see Table A2), with half of them in poor conditions. Chart 4 indicates that only 24.2 percent of total road network in Africa were paved in 1996 albeit with considerable regional diversity. 57.4 percent of the roads in North Africa were paved compared to 25 percent in South Africa and 10.2 percent in Central Africa. Road densities per km2 are generally much lower than those of Asia and Latin America. Road construction and maintenance standards vary greatly in
Africa: few countries are able to construct and maintain trunk-road systems to stipulated requirements and standards according to volume and weight of traffic. Road building has
traditionally been given more priority than road maintenance in most African countries, with scant attention to the imperatives of recurrent costs and road management once a road has been constructed. Besides, as the road networks expands, the institutional and financial burden has tended to increase much more rapidly than the national budget could cater for, especially in times of socio-economic crisis.

Another important dimension to the quality of infrastructure is maintenance and renewal. Lack of maintenance has left over 50 per cent of the paved roads in poor conditions. Over 80 per cent of the unpaved main roads in Africa would be considered just fair. The case of rural feeder roads is even worse; up to 85 per cent are estimated to be currently in poor conditions.

The constructing of international road networks on a sub-regional basis in Africa has received much greater attention. However, a real regional African road system does not as yet exist; what exists, instead, is a large number of separate national road networks that are ineffectively coordinated, and are at best a series of ad hoc inter-country road links and connection. Demand and Supply Pattern

National road networks in Africa have not kept pace with the growing demand: kilometre lengths are limited and their standards of construction often low. The existence of
inadequate and poorly maintained rural and feeder roads connecting villages and farming areas with each other, and to market centres is a major gap in rural transport in most
countries. And few cities have been able to keep pace with road network needs. As agriculture and industry expand, and as national and subregional economies develop, existing road networks will require tremendous extensions and improvements in quality. In particular, road links between nations will have to be strengthened to meet large scale
demand for intra-and inter-subregional goods traffic; all of this require heavy capital investment and expenditure on roads in many African countries.

3.3.2 Rail

Railways in Africa are fragmented, and can hardly be described as a system since the railways run from the interior to sea ports, a reflection of their antecedent as a transport
system designed for external trade purposes. Available Network

The aggregate network of African railways is estimated at 73,000 route kilometres, of which South Africa alone accounts for some 22,500 km. Eleven countries namely; Burundi,
Central Africa Republic, Chad, Cape Verde, Comoros, Djibouti, Mauritius, Seychelles, Somalia, the Gambia, Guinea Bissau and Libya have no railway system. With the exception of North Africa, railways in Africa generally have a low level of traffic. Most of the lines are of light rail, and are unsuited for fast and heavy traffic. Moreover, there is general deterioration due to maintenance problems.

The national railway networks in Africa are mostly independent of each other and, with the exception of Eastern and Southern African railways, unconnected among themselves. All the networks in Africa were built at the end of the nineteenth century or the beginning of the twentieth century, with different technical characters, gauges, couplings, brake systems, buffers, etc. The only exceptions are, Tazara, the Trans-Gabonese, the Trans-Cameroonian and the mining lines. The 1.067 m gauge predominates, especially in sub-
Saharan Africa, whereas the 1.435 m gauge accounts for 76.1 per cent of the total kilometrage in North Africa.. Upgrading existing railway lines would involve major investments in track realignment, resignalling, safety systems and rolling stock.. Demand and Supply pattern

Almost all the railways in Africa enjoyed monopoly or near-monopoly status at inception, especially for long- and medium- distance transport of goods and peoples. With the spectacular development of road transport and to a lesser extent, air transport, in the 1970s, railways have, however, faced increased competition in the transport market, to
which they have not always been able to positively respond and adapt. Tariffs

Railway tariff has stagnated or declined in recent years, and measures of operational efficiency have shown little improvement. For example, locomotive availability remained
generally low at around 50 percent, although both Uganda and Zimbabwe have improved performance in response to restructuring plans. Most railway authorities in Africa have not pursued sustainable tariff policies. Being public or semi-public enterprises, they were not always profit-oriented or cost- conscious in their operation, limiting their ability to maintain the existing networks, let alone upgrade or expand them. Whenever they made profits, they were required to pass them to the users in the form of reduced tariff rates. The tariff basis was the same throughout the network, varying only with distance.

Freight rates by rail in Africa are on average about twice as high as those in Asia and one and half times those in Latin America. But, at the same time, rail operations run at a
deficit. A number of reform programs are under way. These include increased managerial autonomy and sub-contracting more services to the private sector. Some have sub-contracted part, or all, track maintenance to the private sector (Cameroon, Gabon, Nigeria and Senegal) and Senegal has also sub-contracted cleaning of rolling stick, maintenance of wagons, catering and parcels traffic. The broadest private sector initiative involves re-unifying the railways of Cote d’ Ivoire and Burkina Faso, with a view to operating them
under a concession agreement with the private sector.

3.3.3 Airports

Air transport network in Africa is still relatively underdeveloped. All countries in the region have at least one international airport as well as several smaller ones. Few of them are capable of handling large amount of traffic. Less than 50 per cent of the 5,304 potential air links among the countries in the region are actually operational or being actively exploited at present. The countries with the highest number of airports are Egypt (17 airports) and Nigeria (15 Airports). Most of the airports lack modern equipment and infrastructure. They are characterized by deteriorating runways, and obsolete traffic control equipment. Much of
the infrastructure required for ancillary activities, such as customs and immigration, air cargo, catering, baggage handing and connecting surface transportation, is lacking compared
with market needs. For example, operational and safety shortcoming that plague Nigeria’s international airports have given them the reputation of being among the worst in the World.

Almost every African country own at least one airline although some of them are being privatized in recent times. However, Air Afrique is a regional airline, jointly owned
by ten countries. The privatized airlines include Kenya Airways incidentally the first airline to be privatized in Africa, Royal Air Maroc and Air Tunisia both of which are
partially privatized. Nigeria, however, adopted the liberalisation of the domestic aviation industry resulting in the licencing of 22 private carriers, of which 14 offer scheduled
passenger service, 7 carry cargo and the balance provide charter fights.

Only Cote d’ Ivoire is currently actively reforming its airports with the ceding of the management of Abidjan’s international airport to a French international consortium, Aeria, which has pledged to spend CFA 14 billion upgrading the airport. Tariffs

The airlines in Africa suffer from high operational costs compared with their counterparts world-wide, including other developing regions; they lack proper maintenance facilities
locally and their tariffs are generally uncompetitive in the absence of subsidies. With the growth of mega-airlines in many regions of the world, the African airlines, being mostly
small and poorly equipped, are unable to compete in the international market. And the only hope for survival for most of them lies in mergers with bigger and more competitive

.3.3.3 Demand and Supply Pattern

Air services are restricted by low demand in several countries. Apart from Air Mauritius which accounted for about 50 per cent of total persenger traffic in 1997, the share of African
airlines in international traffic is very low, owing in part to a reputation of poor services and reliability. For example, the share of Air Egypt in international traffic is only 25 per cent at
most, despite fare reductions in recent times.

3.3.4 Sea Ports

Maritime transport is extremely important to African countries due to the nature of its operations, and the high proportion of traded goods transported by sea. However, the poor quality of port services and infrastructure in Africa, and the low level of trade volumes are some of the major limitations on the growth of this sub-sector. Port productivity is, on average, about a third of international norm due to poor management, excessive bureaucracy, and inadequate as well as unreliable of equipment. Delays in clearing goods are frequently a problem. Most ports are in need of modern, better managed facilities to serve traffic for which sea transport has a significant cost advantage over surface transport, such as dry and liquid bulk cargoes or containerized cargo. The port of Mombassa, for instance, has only two cranes one of which is frequently out of order. The main port of Ghana was recently rehabilitated and expanded but suffers from mostly human inefficiencies. Manufacturers habitually post employees in the port for several days on end to make sure that the goods move in and out of the port on time. There is generally a need for upgrading of existing ports in Africa.

Less than two per cent of the African merchant fleet capacity are container ships; the majority being conventional cargo ships. The shipping lines that principally service long-
distance sea routes consider most of Africa’s coastal traffic as mere subsidiary to their traditional overseas activities. Tariff

Ocean freight charges in Africa are competitive. The impression that ocean freight charges from Africa are prohibitively high is not supported by the facts. Empirical evidence provided by Biggs, et al. (1994) and presented in Table 7 on freight and port charges from five African countries to the port of New York/Newark and a comparison with similar charges from Sri Lanka and Bangladesh, two countries in East Asia, indicate that freight charges generally reflect their relative distances to the port of destination and appear to give West African countries a slight competitive advantage. However, port charges in the principal ports in Africa are higher than the comparable charges in the two Asian ports.
Consequently, when freight and port charges are added up, the costs of transportation from some ports in Africa may actually be higher than from those ports in East Asia. Interviews with a number of large shipping agents indicate that the frequency of sailing from the principal African ports to New York/Newark is also not a constraining element.

3.4 Electricity

3.4.1 Available Network

Total electricity generation in 1994 was 350,000 Gigawatt-hours. The generation mix is dominated by fossil fuel generating plants which account for 81 percent of total
electricity generation, with hydro accounting for just 15 per cent. A small fraction of available hydro resources is utilized in Africa, with 64.4 percent of the exploitable hydro capacity located in East and Southern Africa, 34.2 percent in West Africa and 1.2 percent in North Africa. This is mainly due to shortfalls in water-flow associated with climate change in some countries, low demand in countries endowed with immense hydro resources, and potential transmission losses associated with long distance transmission from countries endowed with immense hydro resources to energy deficient
countries and regions. Oil-based generation is more uniformly distributed in Africa while coal-based generation feature prominently in the southern African countries of South

Africa, Zimbabwe, Botswana, and Mozambique; and in Morocco in North Africa and Niger in West Africa. Gas fuelled plants are of increasing importance in Algeria, Nigeria
Tunisia. Nuclear and geothermal plants are relatively unimportant at 2.7 and 0.1 per cent respectively. Kenya remains the only country exploiting its geothermal resources, though progress in this direction remains lack-lustre.

In terms of regional distribution, North Africa accounts for about one third of Africa’s electricity production based largely on burning oil supported by coal and natural gas. West Africa’s share of 9 per cent is based on a mixture of hydro, oil and gas. Central Africa’s share of 4 per cent is dominated by hydro and East Africa’s share of 3 per cent consists of s mixture of oil and hydro. Southern Africa produces the largest share of Africa’s electricity production-about-55 per cent which is dominated by hydro and coal-burning generating plants.

The region’s generation, transmission and distribution systems tend to be old and inefficient, resulting in often substantial losses of generated energy, as much as 40
percent in the case of Uganda. These system losses have further limited the amount of energy available for production and consumption. Furthermore, in many countries consumers have experienced frequent power outages as well as voltage fluctuations, which damage electronic equipment and motors. This unreliability has forced many enterprises in the region to buy and install their own generators, thus raising their
overhead costs.

Self-provision of electricity is common across the region. In Uganda, most large customers maintain stand-by diesel generators.5 In Guinea, between 1983-1992 the private sector installed for its own use some 70 MW of power generation, and in 1993 produced some 109 GWH of electricity, almost as much as the national electric utility6

3.4.2 Demand and Supply Pattern

Africa’s state-owned energy sector in the early 1990s typifies some of the worst failings of the African public monopoly model. While deficiencies in the public enterprises model are
hardly unique to Africa, its weak administrative capacity and legacy of political instability exacerbate the problem.

Countries in the region have one state-owned company performing the four separable activities of generation, transmission, distribution and supply. Only a few countries, such asGhana, have separate companies responsible for generation and transmission, and distribution. Private sector participation in the power sector, although not legally
prohibited, is negligible in most countries in the region. Available data on the structures of power sectors in the region and the policies of different governments suggest that the
pattern of vertically integrated monopoly enterprises with little or no autonomy from government to operate in a commercial manner is typical of Africa. For example, the utility SONEL in Cameroon is approximately 93 percent state-owned, with a board of directors appointed by the government’ UEB in Uganda handles generation, transmission and distribution, and also regulates itself; and NEPA in Nigeria is a state monopoly, and government controls all procurements and foreign exchange transactions. Almost all
countries in the region have opted for an electric utility industry that is an arm of government and generally vertically integrated.

Table 8 presents two performance indicators for selected countries in the region: transmission and distribution losses and rate of return on net fixed asset. Countries perform
differently according to these indicators. Uganda has, for instance, transmission and distribution losses of 38 percent and zero rate of return on net fixed asset, while Ghana has
lower transmission and distribution losses (17.8 percent) and a higher rate of return on net fixed asset (6 per cent) than Uganda. Such differences are also observed when countries in
the region are compared with some countries in other regions of the world (Table 8).
Comparing the performance of the power sectors in most of these SSA countries with that of Chile, a developing country which has reformed its power sector, the latter outperforms
most of the former (at least according to the two indicators that we cite in Table 8). (The only exception is South Africa1).

Most of these countries have rates of return on net fixed asset and debt service coverage that are very low. For instance Nigeria, Sierra Leone and Guinea obtained negative returns in the range of minus 6.2 to 16 percent (Gutierrez 1996). On the issue of reliability, data for power systems in Africa are extremely limited; moreover, supply is widely considered to be low in several African countries. Alternatively, electric utility industry reforms in Chile and Argentina, which led to significant increases in plant availability factors, have reduced the number, length and frequency of outages as compared to their previous experiences (Gutierrez 1996).
3.4.3 Electricity Tariffs

Prices of electricity have typically been between 3 and 4 cents per KWH, compared to 8 and 9 cents or higher in developed economies. Prices have thus been insufficient to generate revenue to cover long run marginal cost, taking into account asset depreciation. These problems are further exacerbated by difficulties in billing and billing decision. Traditionally, state-owned enterprises have played a dual role in electric utility services, acting both as providers of services and regulators. The regulatory structure is not transparent, often characterized by undesired distortive effects. Tariffs, for example, are set by cabinet decision or by the line ministry responsible for the power sector. Most countries have had relatively high inflation (i.e., double-digit) during the past twenty years. As a consequence, there has been a definite tendency to use the cabinet’s or the line ministry’s
ability to manipulate electricity prices as part of broader anti-inflationary programmes. This suggest that real electricity prices have actually fallen drastically n those countries in the region with high inflation.

3.5 Water and Waste Management

Africa made some progress during the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade (1980-90). The number of persons served in urban and rural areas rose from 110
million in 1980 to 230 million in 1990 (114 million of the later being in urban areas). But this was overshadowed by rapid population growth, resulting in more urban residents being
without adequate water supplies in 1990 that in 1980. Water supply and treatment are also deficient in the region. In 1995, only 60.1 and 40.24 percent of the region’s urban and rural
population respectively had access to safe water, albeit with substantial variation in different countries the range was 18 and 18 percent in Central African Republic and 95 and
100 percent for urban and rural areas respectively in Mauritius. Chart 5 presents a comparative analysis of the percentage of population with access to safe water for Africa
and other regions. Most of the water pipe networks are old and urgently require repair and replacement.


Africa’s performance in terms of access to sanitation is equally deplorable. In 1995, only 36.6 per cent of the population had access to sanitation compare to 51 per cent in South East Asia, 64.1 percent in Latin America and 96.7 OECD countries (see Table A1).

However, why Mauritius attained 100 per cent access, the comparative figures for Zambia, Congo Republic and Lesotho are 23, 9 and 6 per cent respectively. A few urban water utilities have been restructured (Conakry, Abidjan, Banjul, for instance). They have moved from being government departments operating with little commercial autonomy and no accountability to commercially run public agencies or to fully or partially privatized firms. Experience has shown that delivery of water to the poorest segments of the population becomes both cheaper and more reliable through such reforms but this transition is still in its early stages.

3.5.2 Tariffs

Except in very few countries, water and waste-water sectors rely on governments for a substantial part of funding requirements, especially for capital investment. Charges are thus kept low to convey benefits to households. Table 9 presents the median price of water for several African countries in 1993. The figures compare favourably with the median price of $0.54 in Asia Pacific but low compared to $2.24 in industralized economies. As with other infrastructure sectors, the balance between household and industrial water tariffs tends to fall more heavily on industry. Currently, the price of water does not reflect its scarcity, resulting in wasteful use of water.

3.6. War Affected Countries

Many devastating conflicts have persisted in several African countries ( Ethiopia, Namibia, Uganda, Angola and Mozambique) while pernicious internal struggle continue to plague others (Liberia, Somalia, Sudan and Sierra Leone). The damage inflicted on the social capital and economic potential of these countries have been horrific. The impact of warfare on physical infrastructure has been enormous, exercebating the already precarious situation. While war ravaged, infrastructure stocks including roads and bridges were often the primary targets. Existing infrastructure stocks were often severely depleted. For example, in Uganda, the transport infrastructure suffered greatly from neglect during the troubled period between 1971 and 1986. The international airport at Entebbe was extensively damaged during the conflict with Tanzania in 1979-80. The railway system was not left out as many sectors of tract, apart from the rolling stock, were in serious need of remedial work by 1986. This has been the trend in many war ravaged economies.

.7. Landlocked Countries and Infrastructure

Africa has a considerable number of landlocked countries, incidentally among the poorest countries in the world. The current state of infrastructure provision in these countries is demonstrably poor relative to other African countries, thus constituting impediments to the growth potentials of these economies. Countries like Malawi, Uganda, Zimbabwe and Zambia rely on neigbouring countries to ensure reliable delivery. Transportation problems are compounded for landlocked countries by problems in intermodal transportation. In many cases, railway system differ among countries, schedules are not coordinated, and even in transport by road, goods tend to be delayed by customs control. It takes a typical Ugandan business man, three and half months from the time of shipment departure from Europe until arrival Kampala, three times what will be needed under comparable conditions elsewhere in the world (Donaldson, et. al. 1997).

3.8 Infrastructure and the Environment

Infrastructure development in Africa has largely proceeded with minimal consideration for environmental standards and quality. This has been a major factor in the severe degradation of the environment in the form of industrial pollution. In any case, environmental issues have not been given serious policy considerations in Africa’s development agenda. Environmental awareness has only become perceptible in recent years since the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil in June 1992. The concept of sustainable infrastructure development has become relevant in Africa.
Creating a sustainable infrastructure economy based on efficient resource use should be given greater consideration. The environmental problems within urban areas often termed the ‘brown agenda’ is more immediate in Africa. The issues involve include the lack of safe water supply and sanitation, inadequate solid and harzadious waste management, emissions from cars etc. The need arises to introduce environmental sound practices in the management of existing infrastructure in Africa.


Causal Factors in the Inadequate Provision and Delivery of Infrastructure Services in Africa.

A pertinent question is what led to the present unsatisfactory outcomes? In spite of the recognition that each infrastructure sector has its own peculiar problems, there are common weaknesses in most African countries. An extensive inquiry is beyond the scope of this paper, but it suffices to focus on several general reasons affecting infrastructure delivery in Africa.

While political and economic instability, low per capita incomes and often challenging geographic conditions have significantly constrained the development of Africa’s infrastructure, there is abundant evidence that the protracted crisis in the sector is due mainly to past and current policy choices. A major explanatory factor is the prevalence of a regime of price controls that for a long time had little consideration for commercial objectives including cost recovery. Prices amount, on average, to just above a third of supply costs and are half as much as those in industrial countries. The pricing regime is characterized by administered prices that are in many cases appreciably below what is required to operate, maintain and rehabilitate facilities, and consequently entail large efficiency losses and social costs. Too often, controlled prices often imposed on state infrastructure monopolies, prices that are unresponsive to changing market conditions, encourage uneconomic investment of resources targeted at meeting the inefficient and unsustainable growth in the demand for infrastructure services. It is evident that prices that are below economic costs and what is needed to finance infrastructure development and maintenance expenditure in the face of escalating cost conditions in the industry are unlikely to restrain excessive demand and minimize uneconomic investment of resources. With negative or at best low positive financial and social rates of return to infrastructure investment associated with low product prices, it is not surprising that supply shortages persisted in the sector. In response to these shortages, many businesses and households have resorted to self-provision, often at high cost. For example, according to a 1988 study of 179 Nigerian manufacturers, 92 percent of forms surveyed owned electricity generators, and 44 percent had boreholes to assure their own private water supply. In the face of chronically unreliable public services, many also had acquired radio equipment for communications (37 percent of firms) and vehicles to transport personnel (37 percent) and freight (63 percent).
For firms with 50 or more employees that could practice economies of scale, the extra costs of private power generator amounted to some 10 percent of the total machinery and equipment budget; for smaller firms, the burden was as high as 25 percent.7 Substantial self-provision of infrastructure is also the norm for low income consumers, relief from the failure of public providers often comes through the informal sector. The best known examples are private water vendors who use trucks or smaller receptacles to haul water either for distribution at central locations or to individual dwellings. In some places, private vendors served 90 percent of households, and in several places purchases of private water amounted to more than 30 percent of household income.

A fairly robust analysis of incremental reserves that would arise from moderate and achievable increase in financial returns through pricing reforms in Africa’s infrastructure, albeit dated, indicates that the net benefit on resource mobilized would amount to about one fifth and one third of public revenues as shown in Table 11 (Anderson,1989). Furthermore, such reforms apart from being easy to administer would entail negligible ‘deadweight’ or efficiency losses.

Sector Current contribution Potential Contribution as Percentage to Public Revenue of Public Revenue

Overall Incremental Effect

Electricity small or negative 5 – 10 per cent 5 – 10 per cent

Water small or negative 2 – 5 per cent 2 – 5 per cent

Telecoms varies but marginal 5 – 10 per cent 5 – 10 per cent

Roads 10 – 15 per cent 10 – 25 per cent 5 – 10 per cent
Source: Anderson (1987).

Apart from administered prices, several demand and supply-related factors, some of them interwined, have had a profound negative impact on infrastructure development in Africa. As in most other developing countries, governments in the region have assumed responsibility for almost all of these infrastructure services through state owned enterprises created precisely in order to make socially productive investments so as to eliminate impediments to the overall economic development. Almost without exception, the provision of infrastructure in Africa is the exclusive responsibility of the government.
Government own, operate and finance nearly all infrastructure. Thus, the record of success and failure in infrastructure is largely a story of government’s performance. However, these enterprises have established a poor reputation across Africa. Besides trying to provide a particular service to an acceptable quality, they are also expected to pursue a variety of social” goals, including the creation of employment and the subsidization of prices to consumers, ostensibly with the view to providing broad and affordable access to the poorer parts of society. These objectives have in reality imposed a variety of costs on the enterprises as a major employment mechanism has resulted in significantly bloated workforces. Similarly, the prevalence of widespread input and output subsidies creates significant wedges between product prices and costs and in the process confront these enterprises with soft budget constraints and dysfunctional government interference in sector activities and enterprise management functions that encourage gross inefficiency in production, distorted demand patterns and investment choices, induced endemic and expensive delays and cost overruns that encouraged widespread corruption in infrastructure construction and equipment and material purchases and minimized the market responsiveness of the sector to changing demand and supply conditions through excessive regulations. The subsidization of services in reality often allows the more affluent citizens to benefit disproportionately from artificially low prices by providing them with better access to these services. In Lusaka, Zambia, for instance, only 28% of the households in the poorest fifth of the population have access to electricity, compared to 70% in the richest segment. Similarly, it has been estimated that the poorest fifth of the population in Tanzania receives only about 10 per cent of the government subsidy for water, whereas the richest fifth receives about 40 percent. At the same time, these subsidization polices have invariably translated into smaller revenues. Public utilities have thus often found themselves in the difficult financial position of not being able to cover their operating expenses. It has not been possible in many cases to maintain existing facilities adequately, and new investments have consistently had to be postponed. At the same time, most governments have suffered from chronic budget deficits, which have kept them from filling the financial gap. In the end, countries have been left with inadequate infrastructural facilities, while the responsible enterprises, not motivated by commercial objectives, have had little incentive to improve their performance significantly. The Nigerian experience provides considerable support for the distortionary effects and the disincentives associated with excessive political interference in investment decision, pricing policy, plant location, equipment choice and employment structure resulting in higher costs and low earning ability of public infrastructure.

Economic theory justifies an important role for government intervention in efficient and equitable infrastructure use and provision. The arguments rest on several “traditional” notions of market failure, such as: externalities in consumption and production; scale economies; non-excludability; information problems about benefits alleviation. But infrastructure services are diverse and each exhibits these characteristics to varying degrees. Policies often fail when they do not make such distinctions within infrastructure.

There are several reasons why public provision of infrastructure services have not had the desirable impact in Africa.

First, under a public sector dominated regime, investments in infrastructure are often misallocate for various reasons. For example, most of the selected projects are not based on the articulated needs of the society. Hence, there is no informed prioritisation of project selection or implementation. Hence, projects of lowest priority could be preferred to those of topmost priority in terms of the real needs of the society at a given point in time. Another dimension relates to the obsession with new projects. In this regard, there is usually excessive concentration of resources on new structures and little or no allocation to maintenance of infrastructural facilities. Interestingly, however, infrastructure is the easiest prey for speeding cuts during periods of fiscal crisis, while priority is given to consumption-promoting expenditure and projects of short term benefit to the economy. Many on-going infrastructural projects are usually abandoned, only to be revived, if at all, at very exorbitant costs later on. Another major source of disenchantment with this policy stance relates to the quality of services. The delivery of high quality services is usually hampered by technical inefficiency and outright waste.
Inadequate maintenance leads to erratic service supply and distribution, while the low productivity of such facilities results in very high unit operating costs which are often times passed on to the consumers. The useful life of affected facilities are also shortened.
The World Bank (1994b), observed that low-income communities are not offered suitable transport and sanitation options that provide services they value and can afford. Rather, premature investments in capacity especially in water supply, railways, power and irrigation have often absorbed resources that could otherwise have been devoted to maintenance, modernisation or improvements in service quality. More significantly, because infrastructure investments are immobile and serve local markets, excess capacity cannot serve other markets and it remains under-used. And in some cases, large public projects have been overambitious, placing a costly burden on the economy. Also important is the twin problem of waste and inefficiency, that seems to claim a large share of resources that could be used for infrastructural services delivery.

The nature of public decision process with multiple, nebulously defined and often conflicting objectives which place less emphasis on nor provide adequate incentives for efficiency of operations is at the root of this problem. Arising therefrom, investment decisions and tariff policies are often driven primarily by political considerations. Many infrastructure projects in Africa should never have been embarked upon. Decisions to proceed with new projects are sometimes taken at the political level. It is not uncommon for the political element, for reason of prestige or with unjustified claims insist on an overdesigned capacity. Even within the state-owned enterprises, management is often appointed more on the basis of political loyalty than competence, and staffing profiles are more often dictated by political demands rather than felt needs. Costing and pricing decisions are also guided less by economic but more by political considerations. It is against this background that agitation have mounted for private sector involvement in the provision of infrastructure. This, it is hoped, would enhance the preference for economic considerations and demand-driven decisions process. Greater emphasis will be placed upon efficiency with its attendant positive effects on economic growth, enhance standard of living and poverty alleviation. The reduced pressure on government revenue will also facilitate internal and external equilibria and stimulate foreign investment. Overall, permission for private provision of infrastructure will suggest to international and national investors, or development institutions government’s commitment to sound fiscal management, efficiency and substantial role for the private sector (Kerf and Smith,

Redefining public-private sector interface in the provision of infrastructure services has become an important though controversial policy issue in the search for a more viable infrastructure sector in Africa. This is particularly vital since the efficiency, productivity and reliability of infrastructure provision impacts on the efficiency of domestic production and investment as well as the international competitiveness of the economy. A crucial variable is also the role of foreign capital. Foreign private involvement in Africa’s infrastructure has been quite limited as shown in Table 11 which presents private infrastructure projects word-wide between 1985 and 1995. A cursory examination of the table indicates that only sixty-four projects were recorded for Africa in the ten year period, compared to 223 for East Asia/Pacific and 252 for OECD countries. The project sum at $1.2 billion (less than 1 per cent) is equally deplorable and the reasons are not farfetched.

The region is yet to broaden its investment base beyond energy and mining which remain the prime attractions. Africa has the unenviable reputation of having uncompetitive product markets, thin capital markets, perceived high risks as well as legal, procedural and regulatory impediments. Public enterprises in infrastructure have a lower net worth and are
less attractive to foreign buyers, except perhaps in telecommunications. African governments until recently resist selling to foreigners. Investors are reluctant to take an equity position in infrastructure because governments have established consistent pricing
and other macroeconomic policies which continue to undermine infrastructure. Even in
countries where the sector is open to private participation, there is often the problem of
the inability of regulatory and legal institutions to provide credible commitments to create
opportunities for potential investors to cover their investment costs and make profit
including the risk-adjusted opportunity cost of capital. Macroeconomic and political instability as well as legal restrictions on foreign capital discourage the flow of direct
investment to this sector. Investors are wary of internal political volatility and the uncertainty of obtaining the enforcement of contracts.


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