To My readers of the Islamic faith I send you greetings on this Ramadan 2014
The World Economic Forum on last year released its Global Risks 2014 report. How Accurate has it been so far this year?
“Taking a 10-year outlook, the report assesses 31 risks that are global in nature and have the potential to cause significant negative impact across entire countries and industries if they take place,” is how the World Economic Forum describes the report in a statement accompanying its release.
“The risks are grouped under five classifications—economic, environmental, geopolitical, societal and technological—and measured in terms of their likelihood and potential impact,” the statement says.
The report canvasses the views of 700 experts from around the world. Ten of what the World Economic Forum calls the “global risks of highest concern” for 2014 are as follows:
“Fiscal crises feature as the top risk in this year’s Global Risks report. Advanced economies remain in danger, while many emerging markets have seen credit growth in recent years, which could fuel financial crises. A fiscal crisis in any major economy could easily have cascading global impacts.”
“Unemployment appears second overall, as many people in both advanced and emerging economies struggle to find jobs. Young people are especially vulnerable—youth unemployment is as high as 50% in some countries and underemployment (with low-quality jobs) remains prevalent, especially in emerging and developing markets.”
“Environmental risks feature prominently on this year’s list. Water crises, for instance, rank as the third highest concern, illustrating a continued and growing awareness of the global water crisis as a result of mismanagement and increased competition for already scarce water resources.”
“Closely associated in terms of societal risk, income disparity is also among the most worrying issues. Concerns have been raised about the squeezing effect the financial crisis had on the middle classes in developed economies, while globalization has brought about a polarization of incomes in emerging and developing economies.”
•Failure of climate change mitigation and adaptation
“Even as governments and corporations are called upon to speed up greenhouse gas reduction, it is clear that the race is on not only to mitigate climate change but also to adapt. Failure to adapt has the biggest effect on the most vulnerable, especially those in least developed countries.”
“Climate change is the key driver of uncertain and changing weather patterns, causing an increased frequency of extreme weather events such as floods and droughts. The Global Risks 2014 report draws attention to the combined implications of these environmental risks on key development and security issues, such as food security and political and social instability, ranked 8th and 10th respectively.”
“The risk of global governance failure, which lies at the heart of the risk map, was viewed by respondents as one of the risks that is most connected to others. Weak or inadequate global institutions, agreements or networks, combined with competing national and political interests, impede attempts to cooperate on addressing global risks.”
“One of the top societal risks in the report, food crises occur when access to appropriate quantities and quality of food and nutrition becomes inadequate or unreliable. Food crises are strongly linked to the risk of climate change and related factors.”
“Over five years after the collapse of Lehman Brothers, the failure of a major financial mechanism or institution also features among the risks that respondents are most concerned about, as uncertainty about the quality of many banks’ assets remains.”
“At number 10 is the risk that one or more systemically critical countries will experience significant erosion of trust and mutual obligations between states and citizens. This could lead to state collapse, internal violence, regional or global instability and, potentially, military conflict.”
Severe income inequality is the biggest risk facing the world, according to a study by the World Economic Forum.
In a landscape of 50 global risks facing the world over the next 10 years, respondents rated severe income inequality as the most likely global risk. On a scale of 1 to 5, with 5 being “almost certain” to occur, severe income disparity was given a risk rating of 4.14 by the experts, ranking above chronic fiscal imbalances (3.99), greenhouse emissions (3.91), water supply crisis (3.85) and mismanagement of population aging (3.83).
It is the second year in a row that income inequality has reached first place as the most likely global risk. Major financial systemic failure gained the top spot for the biggest global risk in terms of impact.
Branko Milanovic, the lead economist at the World Bank’s research group, said that severe income inequality could fuel mass migration and popular uprisings.
“Global inequality reflects two types of increasing inequalities: rising gaps between nations (which cause migration) and rising inequalities within nations (which cause protests, disenchantment and revolts). So, in that double sense, what happens to global inequality is very important,” (Milanovic)
As the financial crisis in Europe and the U.S. forces governments to reduce their budgets, debt and spending, government entitlement policies have been cut and income inequality has increased.
“[Government policies] impact a lot,” Milanovic said. “Obviously through tax-and-transfer policies, but also through a host of other rules, regulations and subsidies,” he added.
The financial crash in 2007 changed the role and priorities of global governments .
“With the financial and then fiscal crisis, the redistributive role of government has become more limited. Also, with globalization, taxing rich people and mobile capital is harder,” he said. “Thus, globalization increases the political power of highly skilled individuals…for whom there is a global market, [and] reduces the power of those who cannot easily move.” .
As U.S. politicians begin to negotiate over the debt ceiling and spending cuts that the December “fiscal cliff” deal postponed, the debate on social services has come to the fore again, particularly as the gap between “haves and have-nots” increases.
The non-partisan Congressional Budget Office reported in 2011 that between 1979 and 2007 the top 1 percent of households saw their income grow by 275 percent, while for the bottom 20 percent, income grew by just 20 percent. For the middle 60 percent of Americans, average incomes grew just under 40 percent.
Another global superpower, China, offers an interesting example of income disparity, with rapid economic growth leading to an explosion of China’s middle class. Meanwhile, an estimated 128 million Chinese are living under the poverty line (that’s 13.6 percent of the population living on less than $1.25 per day, according to the World Bank).
Dimitris Pavlopoulos is from the VU University of Amsterdam and is the co-author of a pan-European analysis entitled, “Accounting for Inequality in the EU” assessing income disparities between and within member states.
“For an increasing number of people, the fulfillment of basic needs, such as food, education and health, is problematic,” he said. “Even in countries with traditionally equal income distributions and strong welfare states, such as the Netherlands, the number of people that cannot make ends meet is increasing.”
Income inequality in the EU has been driven by the deregulation of the labor market and the retrenchment of the welfare state — and it will become more pronounced and destabilizing in the near-future, he added.
“It is quite clear that income distribution will become more unequal in the coming years,” he said. “The common perception is that even if the current crisis is overcome… a jobless growth will follow. In a scenario of high unemployment and large dispersion in labor earnings, we can expect a strong increase of income inequality in all EU member states.”
Pavlopoulos says such a scenario creates a “very gloomy” outlook for Europe. “Whole parts of the population will find themselves with little prospect for proper integration in the labor market. In southern Europe, we can safely speak about a ‘lost generation’,” Pavlopoulos said.
While experts associated with the World Economic Forum might agree that severe income inequality is the biggest global risk in the near future, the desire, not to mention the ability, to solve income disparities is limited.
They [Governments] cannot do much because they are cornered in by the financial system, on the one hand, and corporate globalization on the other. An increase in taxation needs to be multilateral in order to avoid “beggar thy neighbor” policies (in other words, competitive reduction in tax rates). That is something that EU and U.S. could in principle achieve, but most likely political cowardice will prevent .
But regulation and spending on education could help, as could massive infrastructure projects. Last Year’s protracted debates over the “fiscal cliff” in the U.S. showed that conflicting political ideals make it nearly impossible to find agreement within a government, let alone between countries.
If not, the world can expect more two-tier societies like that in Brazil, where gated communities and elite private schools for the rich exist cheek-by-jowl with “third world” ghettos.
I am a Strategic Planner who finds solutions to issues and problems that seem to have no solutions. Management information systems are NOT part of this planning solution methodology. If there is any one guiding principal to my work it is “If you cannot solve the problem you are facing, than you are facing the wrong problem. Changing the definition of that problem can lead to alternative solutions that were not previously considered or even dismissed as impractical.” The problem with most companies strategic planning is they do not look outside their own small domain. hence broader encompassing solutions are never developed let alone implemented. Alternative Fuel Vehicles are a prime example. and that is the topic of this posting. I will try to write in as simple terms for the better understanding of everyone.
To Understand the options in Alternative Fuels for Vehicles as well as why they have not been more popular and hopefully concluding with a proposed solution we must consider in addition to the technology necessary for these vehicles but even more important the ultimate consumer’s behavior and their life style and actual “home” locations. This is in addition to the “Chicken or the Egg” issue of infrastructure to fuel these vehicles vs. manufacturing of these vehicles.
After the following discussion about current alternative fuel vehicles, there will be an attempt to give you a brad based strategic plan to implement the actual full scale production of one or more of these vehicles.
There appears to be 2 main reasons why these vehicles are not selling in large numbers
Fist Elon Musk must be given enormous credit for his efforts in the electric vehicle market. His designs are first rate and his ultimate concept is good, but for the following reasons not great at this time:
Consider consumer behavior. Most people will go to an alternative gas station rather than wait 5 minutes for an open pump.
In the current society of instant information and fast food, instant meals and electronic communications that are in real time, NO ONE wants to wait 30 minutes to charge a car battery let alone 12 hours or more. Worse is the vast majority of the batteries for electric vehicles will only go a maximum of 100 miles or less and will need a re-charge, or a fully charged substitute battery (currently weighing over 1,000 pounds), which currently must be returned to the same location.
Less than 1/3 of Americans live where they can actually plug into an electric outlet. Apartments, town houses, condominiums. high rises just to name a few of the locations where you cannot run an electric cord to your vehicle. Compound that by the fact that many of these homes that “COULD” plug in will need an electrician to run wires to an outlet which increases the cost of the vehicle and must be done before you bring the vehicle home. A small cost but a turnoff for many who would even consider this vehicle.
Unfortunately Battery Technology is lagging far behind demand and while there are exciting things on the horizon the market is still limited partially by current technology limitations the other by a low use demand curve even if it was feasible. Imagine if there was a demand for 80-100 million batteries within 5 years and an additional 40 million + every year there after… would there be more research into this? It is possible, but you have to be able to see the bigger picture to know how to develop and implement such a grand vision… and it requires a collaboration of strategic partnerships (non financial) .
So with this scenario can you decide how to make Electric a easy convenient and affordable vehicle for most Americans??
You probably know there are many Forklift trucks that are electric or use propane. However propane is not a suitable alternative fuel for passenger vehicles or even commercial fleets from Tractor trailers to buses and multiple vehicles. Most of these larger vehicles run better with natural gas and have a greater efficiency.
LNG and CNG Alternatives
LNG or liquid natural gas has its share of users from ships to tractor trailers. Clean Energy Fuels is a company founded by Boone Pickens has had good but limited success in establishing fueling stations along major highways and Interstates where these tractor trailers can fuel up. However it is not practical for your neighborhood as the demand is too low.
LNG is more pure than natural state Natural gas. it is on average 99% Methane while regular natural gas is about 95%. Further depending on the canisters used there could be a corrosive action inside of them. But the Liquified Natural gas must be cooled at sub zero temperatures which makes it more expensive.
The cryogenic temperature of LNG (think liquid nitrogen freezing) makes it extremely difficult or impossible to add an odorant.Therefore, with no natural odor of its own, there is no way for personnel to detect leaks unless the leak is sufficiently large to create a visible condensation cloud or localized frost formation. (Your home natural gas has a odor added to it so you can immediately sense leaks.) Further if LNG is stored over an period of time without withdrawal and replenishment the methane content will continuously decrease and the actual physical characteristics of the fuel will change to some extent.
Additionally LNG is more dangerous and requires special permitting to instal the natural gas because of the potential of explosions and the technology necessary to keep it liquid (cold)
I comment Boone Pickens for his vision in Natural Gas uses and his continued efforts with our government to effectively make use of this abundant natural resource. I believe Clean Energy Fuels will be not only profitable this year but for many years to come as his efforts for the Commercial Market will pay off handsomely and will reduce Carbon emissions.
Unfortunately I do not believe it is practical for passenger vehicles and other smaller commercial vehicles in local neighborhoods.
CNG is Compressed Natural Gas. Gas in its natural state is not pressurized . Along most of the pipelines and in your home it is pressurized at 60 PSI (pounds per square inch). Three are many municipalities and towns and cities even national deliver services that are using natural gas in their vehicles now. Some have a compressor on site to make the filing faster and service only their own fleets.
While the benefits of Natural gas is not in question the delivery system is. Since the pipeline is low pressure the fill time is long (often 15-20 minutes or longer) unless there is a compressor and storage available. Even then there would come a time that the demand outstrips the capacity of those pumps.
Then there is the investment in the pumps required to dispense this gas. High investment if you must install one in your own home and that is IF your home has Natural gas available. but as I said above SLOW if you pump at the station. Compressed natural gas is abundant, cheap and half the emissions of Oil/gasoline and does not have to be imported.
Last is the weight of the current fuel tanks for CNG in your vehicle. Not nearly as bad as a battery that weighs 100+ pounds, but still heavy and bulky in space requirements.
Still CNG is probably the most effective Alternative Fuel for Vehicles at this time and in the near future.
There is a plan however that can make this the fuel of choice within 18 months that will be proposed at the end of this article.
THIS is my favorite fuel. With zero emissions it is the best environmentally along with the battery. It was the promise and introduction of H2 Vehicles that caused me to pursue this project on my own for the last 12-14 years. It has tremendous promise. Sadly we are not ready for it.
There are several prototypes for H2 Fuels. That is what makes it confusing for many. One prototype is where water (specialized ultra clean water Or as we know it H2O with is hydrogen and oxygen) This is put into a process inside of the vehicle where the H2 is filtered out and the electron fuels the electric motor or fuel cell that then runs the vehicle and runs the ca. When the H2 is reunited with Oxygen at the end it becomes water(H2O) again.
The other method is to provide the Vehicle with Hydrogen which is then used to run a fuel cell that also runs the vehicle
IN both of these prototypes there is usually battery as one might find in a hybrid today that is able to capture excess energy such as when braking or coasting and the vehicle is equipped with what is easiest to describe as mini generators of sort that give the energy back to the battery to use in the vehicle.
Unfortunately even though Toyota and others have developed a limited introduction there has been no infrastructure in place to develop the amount of Hydrogen needed for a large scale production of H2, nor is there an effect distribution model except pumps at existing fueling stations which would have to be installed at great expense and then a refilling network established to service them.
Conclusion and Proposed Solution
The above indicates 3 alternative fuels. Below is a possibility of HOW over a brief period of time we can develop then and provide them to all of the United States and other countries with the first full scale production of these vehicles starting with the 2016 models.
I regret I will not be giving the details of the project in this post. I am after all is said and done a business man and hope to establish a business around this project.
If you have read up to know hopefully you have had some of your own ideas of how to make these fuels available to the general public. From my perspective there must be a developmental progress along with Strategic Partnership in the4 following areas:
1/ Establish the best fuel to start with. Personally I believe CNG is appropriate. Given that cost of fuel so low at this time it makes it the most practical of all the fuels to bring 400+ miles per tank and at a continued cost fro the next 5 years under 40 dollars per fill-up.
2/ Develop a delivery system in conjunction with the Auto Manufactures. Thji8s has been partially done. A hybrid Carbon Fiber 4-5 liter Canister that can be pressurized to 25,000 PSI. The technology has been confirmed. It cannot have aluminum as is traditionally used inside the canister because of the pressure. Nor can it be completely Carbon fiber as the Carbon Fiber becomes porous and would leak. So a new method of construction had already been developed. I have to that Lamborghini for the seeds to my thought process on this. (If they want to provide a new on to me in thanks and appreciation I would be happy to have it….LOL)
3/ Develop Strategic Partnerships: Auto Manufactures along with regional filling depots. These will start with the CNG and later be able to be utilized for the H2 canisters that will follow when the Automotive industry is ready for Hydrogen. It will also take a little while longer to develop the necessary methods to supply enough H2 to fill the estimated 40 million canisters demand by the second year of operations. to start this phase
4/ Partnership with the 5-600 regional refilling depots that have already been identified for a distribution system comprising 150-250 ,000 fueling stations (this is far greater than the number of existing gas stations) but easily accomplished under the Business plan section of the Strategic Plan.
5/ Strategic partnership with a natural gas company to supply estimated 20 Billion Cubic Feet of Natural gas per week within 5 years after the start of operations that is roughly a trillion cubic feet per year
6/ The same system of distribution and locations can be used for the hydrogen filling depots and fueling stations as well as intimately Battery distribution when battery size, weight and storage comes down in weight to between 10 and15 pounds that can give at least 100 miles of operations to a vehicle. This established distribution system system can provide on site recharge stations for exchanging batteries as well as returning batteries to the depot for refurbishing or recycling at the end of a number of charging and recharging cycles.
Every canister will have an RF chip that will identify the source of manufacture, components, usage locations of activity to facilitate distribution model as well as other information that can be sued to effectively maintain these batteries and canisters and stations they reside at.
Remember at the beginning of this article I said “If you cannot solve the problem you are facing, than you are facing the wrong problem. Changing the definition of that problem can lead to alternative solutions that were not previously considered or even dismissed as impractical.” Well hopefully this article inspires you in some way to look outside the immediate problem and find al encompassing solutions in your life and businesses as well.
As you have read the drawbacks and benefits of each Alternative Fuel, understand these are my observations and opinions from the last 12-14 years. I am not now nor have I ever been employees or associated with not worked in any capacity in the Automotive, Oil and Gas Industry or anyone in the businesses I have listed above. ALTHOUGH I was involved on the buyers side of some GM assets (factories) in the early 1990′s .
Some may call this a fantasy. Others have said it may be visionary. I just call it common sense. There has been no real plan in the last dozen years that would make alternative fuels an actual reality. I will stake my life on the fact that this methodology is out best bet to do so and that the plan that has been developed includes the cost of start up and how to fund the entire start up with 18 months.. in time for the 2016 automotive sales season. I have dug down into the nitty grity details of auto manufacturing, canister manufacturing, cost analysis, and distribution and supply costs. THIS can be done and can be good for the nation and good for the economy and good for any partners, both strategic and financial.
The Transition from CNG to Hydrogen and Battery revenue streams is planned for throughout the implementation in a seamless manner. .
NOTE1: Discussion of Ethanol and Bio Fuels such as bio oil were not addressed as it is my belief they are much lesser alternatives for vehicles than the ones listed above
NOTE 2: If there readers who have interest in this type of start-up and want to discuss this project in more detail I encourage you to make contact with me. It is imperative however that you have the necessary political lobbying structure and corporate management techniques as well as access to executive management of those in the automotive manufacturing industry. for as stated above I have no inroads into them. It is through these inroads that we can effect an extremely almost obscenely low start-up cost for this business. Hence these are critical for any potential partnership with me on this project. If someone is willing to follow this long thought out and refined process in both the strategic planning and business plan there is a very realistic expectation an exit strategy that would have a valuation in excess of 25 Billion Dollars in 5 years time and continued growth for the next 5-7 years and then a flattening for the next 10 before new technology would make this company antiquated unless adaption is incorporated into the Business plan.
Journalist inquiries are also welcome. However the details of this project cannot be shared without a confidentiality agreement which would include significant penalties for violation.. but for evaluation purposes I am willing to discuss with anyone the general overall project plan.
Beautiful people like her are naturally elusive. You can never fully have her, her spirit was born free and had no intentions of changing. Her essence was meant to be shared, and experienced, but on her own terms, not to be possessed and controlled by outside standards or expectation. She was comfortable in her skin, and secure in her own thoughts. Her being attracted attention but she desired much more than to be seen; her appetite was for something bigger than herself. She was here to teach us that it’s less about how you get what you desire and more about how you treat what you value. How effort and appreciation can arrest the heart, and how patience and thoughtfulness can consume the mind. She only desired to be loved fully, but never controlled, she wasn’t here to be handled. And though she was misunderstood by the fearful, and seemed as a bit reckless by the careful. She still existed, whole and unashamed. She was free, alive and full of life in her own world. And it was beautiful to see.
Rob Hill Sr
If you’re one of those folks who thinks President Obama is a “disappointment,” you haven’t been paying attention the last few years. And those of you who try to draw comparisons with the Bush Administration should put away the hallucinogens and have your memory checked. If you were in a coma for the eight Bush Years, I apologize and forgive you. But please join the real world. So far, this president has done most of what he said he would do if elected; imagine what he could have done by now if progressives had supported him and not given him a Congress that doesn’t look at him as if he’s the demon seed.
Not only is he NOT a “disappointment,” he’s pretty much the opposite. And no, I don’t just say that because he took out Osama bin Laden, helped Libya determine their own destiny for the first time in a while, and because he seems able to handle international incidents without starting a new war. The guy does nearly everything we elect a president to do, and he doesn’t brag about it constantly.
Is he perfect? No, he’s human. Does he deserve some criticism? I suppose, but I must admit I haven’t seen any complaints that were based on anything having to do with the real world. One I can’t forgive him for is pulling Janet Napolitano out of Arizona. But the thing is, on balance, he’s mostly stellar. Besides, criticism about certain specific problems is one thing; taking on an overall “Obama sucks” meme not only had the potential to put Willard Romney into power, it is and was also a lie. Just because you wanted a president who would give you a glitter-farting unicorn and didn’t quite get that doesn’t mean he’s not doing well at the job we hired him for.
Despite the characterizations of some, Obama’s success rate in winning congressional votes on issues was an unprecedented 96.7% for his first year in office. Though he is often cited as superior to Obama, President Lyndon Johnson’s success rate in 1965 was only 93%. http://n.pr/i3d7cY
Within days after taking office, he signed an Executive Order ordering an audit of government contracts, and combating waste and abuse. http://1.usa.gov/dUvbu5
Created the post of Chief Performance Officer, whose job it is to make operations more efficient to save the federal government money. http://n.pr/hcgBn1
On his first full day, he froze White House salaries. http://on.msnbc.com/ewJUIx
He appointed the first Federal Chief Information Officer to oversee federal IT spending. http://www.cio.gov
He committed to phasing out unnecessary and outdated weapons systems, and also signed the Weapons Systems Acquisition Reform Act to stop waste, fraud and abuse in the defense procurement and contracting system. http://bit.ly/hOw1t1 http://bit.ly/fz8GAd
Through an executive order, he created the National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform. http://bit.ly/hwKhKa
He pushed through and signed the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, otherwise known as “the stimulus package,” despite the fact that not one Republican voted for that bill. In addition, he launched recovery.gov, so that taxpayers could track spending from the Act. http://1.usa.gov/ibiFSs http://1.usa.gov/e3BJMk
In his first year, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act created and sustained 2.1 million jobs and stimulated the economy 3.5%. http://reut.rs/i46CEE
He created the Making Home Affordable home refinancing plan. http://1.usa.gov/goy6zl
He oversaw the creation of more jobs in 2010 alone than Bush did in eight years. http://bit.ly/hrrnjY
He oversaw a bailout of General Motors that saved at least 1.4 million jobs, and put pressure on the company to change its practices, resulting in GM returning to its place as the top car company in the world. http://lat.ms/zIJuQx
He also doubled funding for the Manufacturing Extension Partnership which is designed to improve manufacturing efficiency. http://bit.ly/eYD4nf
He signed the Fraud Enforcement and Recovery Act giving the federal government more tools to investigate and prosecute fraud in every corner of the financial system. It also created a bipartisan Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission to investigate the financial fraud that led to the economic meltdown. http://abcn.ws/g18Fe7
He signed the Credit Card Accountability, Responsibility and Disclosure (CARD) Act, which was designed to protect consumers from unfair and deceptive credit card practices. http://1.usa.gov/gIaNcS
He increased infrastructure spending after years of neglect. http://bit.ly/f77aOw
He signed the Helping Families Save Their Homes Act, expanding on the Making Home Affordable Program to help millions of Americans avoid preventable foreclosures. The bill also provided $2.2 billion to help combat homelessness, and to stabilize the housing market. http://bit.ly/eEpLFn
Through the Worker, Home Ownership, and Business Assistance Act of 2009, he and Congressional Democrats provided tax credits to first-time home buyers, which helped the U.S. housing market recovery. http://bit.ly/dZgXXw http://bit.ly/gORYfL
He initiated a $15 billion plan designed to encourage increased lending to small businesses.
He created business.gov, which allows for online collaboration between small businesses and experts re managing a business. (The program has since merged with SBA.gov.) http://www.business.gov
He played a lead role in getting the G-20 Summit to commit to a $1.1 trillion deal to combat the global financial crisis. http://nyti.ms/gHlgp5
He took steps to improve minority access to capital. http://bit.ly/f9xVE7
He created a $60 billion bank to fund infrastructure improvements such as roads and bridges. http://bit.ly/e1SSaQ
He implemented an auto industry rescue plan, and saved as many as 1 million jobs. http://bit.ly/ibhpxr Many are of the opinion that he saved the entire auto industry, and even the economy of the entire Midwest. http://bit.ly/gj7mt5
Through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, he saved at least 300,000 education jobs, such as teachers, principals, librarians, and counselors that would have otherwise been lost. http://1.usa.gov/ez30Dc
He dismantled the Minerals Management Service, thereby moving forward to cut ties between energy companies and the government. http://nyti.ms/bw1MLu
Provided funding to states and the Department of Homeland Security to save thousands of police and firefighter jobs from being cut during the recession. http://bit.ly/g0IKWR
He used recovered TARP money to fund programs at local housing finance agencies in California, Florida, Nevada, Arizona and Michigan. http://on.msnbc.com/i1i8eV
Crafted an Executive order establishing the President’s Advisory Council on Financial Capability to assist in financial education for all Americans. http://bit.ly/eyqsNE
Ordered 65 executives who took bailout money to cut their own pay until they paid back all bailout money. http://huff.to/eAi9Qq
Dodd-Frank also included the creation of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau http://1.usa.gov/j5onG
He made it so that banks could no longer use YOUR money to invest in high-risk financial instruments that work against their own customers’ interests. http://bit.ly/fnTayj
He supported the concept of allowing stockholders to vote on executive compensation. http://bit.ly/fnTayj
He made a deal with Swiss banks that permits the US government to gain access to the records of criminals and tax evaders. http://bit.ly/htfDgw
He established a Consumer Protection Financial Bureau designed to protect consumers from financial sector excesses. http://bit.ly/fnTayj
He oversaw and then signed the most sweeping food safety legislation since the Great Depression. http://thedc.com/gxkCtP
Civil Rights and Anti-Discrimination
He advocated for and signed the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act, which made it a federal crime to assault anyone based on his or her sexual orientation or gender identity. http://bit.ly/gsMSJ7
He pushed through, signed and demanded the Pentagon enact a repeal of the discriminatory “Don’t Ask Don’t Tell” policy that forced soldiers to lie to fight for their country, and put our troops at risk by disqualifying many qualified soldiers from helping. http://bit.ly/fdahuH http://bit.ly/mZV4Pz
He appointed Kareem Dale as the first ever Special Assistant to the President for Disability Policy. http://1.usa.gov/fi5IY0
Helped Congress pass and signed the Civil Rights History Act. http://bit.ly/th0JC8
He extended benefits to same-sex partners of federal employees. http://1.usa.gov/g2RLCj
He’s appointed more openly gay officials than anyone in history. http://bit.ly/g1lA7D
He issued a Presidential Memorandum reaffirming the rights of gay couples to make medical decisions for each other. http://1.usa.gov/aUueGT
He established a White House Council on Women and Girls http://1.usa.gov/rFfqMM
He signed the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act, restoring basic protections against pay discrimination for women and other workers. This was after the GOP blocked the bill in 2007. Only 5 Republican Senators voted for the bill. http://bit.ly/fT3Cxg
Wrote and signed an Executive Order establishing a White House Council on Women and Girls to ensure that all Cabinet and Cabinet-level agencies evaluate the effect of their policies and programs on women and families. http://bit.ly/e1puTk
He expanded funding for the Violence Against Women Act. http://1.usa.gov/dSbI0x
Under his watch, National Labor Relations Board has issued final rules that require all employers to prominently post employees’ rights where all employees or prospective employees can see it, including websites and intranets, beginning November 2011. http://1.usa.gov/qu2EhQ
He provided a $20 billion increase for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (Food Stamps). http://nyti.ms/gfLqyM
He signed an Executive Order that established the White House Office of Urban Affairs. http://wapo.st/eWECA8
He visited more countries and met with more world leaders than any previous president during his first six months in office. http://bit.ly/hZycda
As he promised, he gave a speech at a major Islamic forum in Cairo early in his administration. http://nyti.ms/dKvY4g
He did much to restore America’s reputation around the world as a global leader that does the “right thing” in world affairs, at least according to the rest of the planet. http://bit.ly/h743y7 http://bit.ly/ho4TCr
He re-established and reinforced our partnership with NATO and other allies on strategic international issues. http://1.usa.gov/e7QuDj
Closed a number of secret detention facilities. http://nyti.ms/rpUc9l
He improved relations with Middle East countries by appointing special envoys. http://1.usa.gov/tiGAGe
He pushed for military to emphasize development of foreign language skills. http://bit.ly/AxUCLV
Offered $400 million to the people living in Gaza, called on both Israel and the Palestinians to stop inciting violence. http://bit.ly/9axfWh
He refused to give Israel the green light to attack Iran over their possible nuclear program. http://bit.ly/xVmSZK
He worked to make donations to Haiti tax-deductible in 2009. http://huff.to/6YkAVY
He established a new U.S.-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue. http://1.usa.gov/eX28DP
Issued Executive Order blocking interference and helping to stabilize Somalia. http://1.usa.gov/hxdf8U
He established new, more reasonable policies in our relations with Cuba, such as allowing Cuban-Americans to visit their families and send money to support them. http://n.pr/hY3Kwa http://nyti.ms/emQBde
He ordered the closure of the prison at Guantanamo Bay. It was Republicans (and a smattering of Democrats) who prevented him from following through. http://bit.ly/eW6CVF
Ordered a review of our detention and interrogation policy, and prohibited the use of torture, or what Bush called “enhanced interrogation.” He ordered interrogators to limit their actions to the Army Field manual. http://bit.ly/g6MTuC
He ordered all secret detention facilities in Eastern Europe and elsewhere to be closed. http://bbc.in/h6N9ax
He released the Bush torture memos. http://bit.ly/hWJ5z0
On his second day in office, he signed a detailed Executive Order that banned torture, reversed all Bush torture policies, and put the United States in compliance with the Geneva Convention. http://1.usa.gov/dL6Zve http://nyti.ms/hzWWys
In response to the emerging “Arab Spring,” he created a Rapid Response fund, to assist emerging democracies with foreign aid, debt relief, technical assistance and investment packages in order to show that the United States stands with them. http://bit.ly/zfmGv9
Passed the Iran Sanctions Act, to prevent war, and to encourage Iran to give up their nuclear program. http://1.usa.gov/wLtNjb
Ended the Iraq War. http://tgr.ph/ru0tyS
He authorized and oversaw a secret mission by SEAL Team Six to rescue two hostages held by Somali pirates. http://bit.ly/y8c9Fz
Created a comprehensive new strategy for dealing with the international nuclear threat. http://1.usa.gov/gDX1nE
He authorized a $1.4 billion reduction in Star Wars program in 2010. http://1.usa.gov/gLFZl2
He restarted nuclear nonproliferation talks and built up the nuclear inspection infrastructure/protocols to where they had been before Bush. http://lat.ms/gkcl3i
He signed and pushed to ratification a new SALT Treaty. http://bit.ly/f3JVtw
Negotiated and signed a new START Treaty that will last until at least 2021. http://1.usa.gov/cI1bC4
Through the Defense Authorization Act, he reversed the Bush Administration and committed to no permanent military bases in Iraq. http://bit.ly/hk73OJ
He developed the first comprehensive strategy with regard to Afghanistan and Pakistan designed to facilitate the defeat of al Qaeda and the withdrawal of most troops, as well as the rebuilding of Afghanistan. http://wapo.st/ee4Xcs
He returned our focus to Afghanistan, stabilized the country, and began the process of withdrawing our troops. http://bit.ly/lNXUna
Fulfilled campaign promise and ended our involvement in Iraq, and will complete full troop withdrawal before Christmas 2011. http://onforb.es/nTUk4Z
He took steps to severely weaken al Qaeda and limited their ability to terrorize the world. http://yhoo.it/n5lXs6
He negotiated and signed a nuclear nonproliferation treaty with India. http://1.usa.gov/aHp0Cn
He took decisive action to use NATO to limit the slaughter of innocents in Libya, so that the Libyan people could topple a despotic government and determine their own fate. http://aje.me/qAh4Sj
He made sure that families of fallen soldiers could be on hand when the body arrives at Dover AFB, by providing funding for it. He also ended the media blackout on coverage of the return of fallen soldiers.http://nyti.ms/glqN66 http://bbc.in/gWSSkA
He funded Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) with an extra $1.4 billion to improve veterans’ services. http://1.usa.gov/huhqfo
He provided the troops with better body armor. http://bit.ly/hzSv2h
Created the Joint Virtual Lifetime Electronic Record program for military personnel, in order to improve the quality of their medical care. http://1.usa.gov/f4yaxW
He put an end to the Bush-era stop-loss policy that kept soldiers in Iraq/Afghanistan beyond their enlistment date. (personal note: my son will be in harm’s way for six fewer months with Obama as president, so you know I love this one). http://nyti.ms/e2YQ7Q
He supported and signed the Veterans Health Care Budget Reform and Transparency Act, which made more money available to enable better medical care for veterans. http://1.usa.gov/fN4ur1
He ushered through the largest spending increase in 30 years for the Department of Veterans Affairs for improved medical facilities, and to assist states in acquiring or constructing state nursing homes and extended care facilities. http://1.usa.gov/gY8O3x
He created the Green Vet Initiative, which provided special funding to the Labor Department to provide veterans with training in green jobs. http://bit.ly/epwUQY
He oversaw a $4.6 billion expansion of the Veterans Administration budget to pay for more mental health professionals. http://bit.ly/gjzTxX
Completely reformed the student loan program, to make it possible for students to refinance at a lower rate. http://nyti.ms/dMvHOt
Through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act , he invested heavily in elementary, secondary and post-secondary education. http://1.usa.gov/gGRIAr This includes a major expansion of broadband availability in K-12 schools nationwide http://bit.ly/fNDcj3 , as well as an expansion in school construction. http://bit.ly/fYwNrV
Also through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, he put $5 billion into early education, including Head Start. http://1.usa.gov/tzT2Rr
Signed the Post-9/11 GI Bill, also known as GI Bill 2.0 http://bit.ly/hPhG7J
He oversaw expansion of the Pell Grants program, to expand opportunity for low-income students to go to college. http://bit.ly/hI6tXz
He passed the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, which provided an extra $12.2 billion in funds. http://1.usa.gov/dQvtUe
He signed an order banning gifts from lobbyists to anyone in the Executive Branch. http://bit.ly/fsBACN
He signed an order banning anyone from working in an agency they had lobbied in previous years. He also put strict limits on lobbyists’ access to the White House. http://nyti.ms/gOrznV
He held the first-ever first online town hall from the White House, and took questions from the public. http://bit.ly/gVNSgX
The Obama White House became the first to stream every White House event, live. http://1.usa.gov/kAgOP5
He established a central portal for Americans to find service opportunities. http://www.serve.gov
He provided the first voluntary disclosure of the White House Visitors Log in history. http://1.usa.gov/hQ7ttV
He crafted an Executive Order on Presidential Records, which restored the 30-day time frame for former presidents to review records, and eliminated the right for the vice president or family members of former presidents to do the reviews. This will provide the public with greater access to historic White House documents, and severely curtails the ability to use executive privilege to shield them.
He improved aspects of the Freedom of Information Act, and issued new guidelines to make FOIA more open and transparent in the processing of FOIA requests. http://1.usa.gov/gjrnp2
He’s restored federal agencies such as FEMA to the point that they have been able to manage a huge number of natural disasters successfully. http://bit.ly/h8Xj7z
Authorized Navy SEALS to successfully secure the release of a US captain held by Somali pirates and increased patrols off the Somali coast. http://nyti.ms/efBO7B
Has repeatedly beefed up border security http://bit.ly/mMYB4i
Ordered and oversaw the Navy SEALS operation that killed Osama bin Laden. http://bit.ly/jChpgw
He created a Presidential Memorandum to restore scientific integrity in government decision-making.
Opened up the process for fast-tracking patent approval for green energy projects. http://bit.ly/j0KV2U
Through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, he committed more federal funding, about $18 billion, to support non-defense science and research labs. http://nyti.ms/fTs9t7
He signed the Christopher and Dana Reeve Paralysis Act, the first comprehensive attempt to improve the lives of Americans living with paralysis. http://bit.ly/fOi2rb
He expanded the Nurse-Family Partnership program, which provides home visits by trained registered nurses to low-income expectant mothers and their families, to cover more first-time mothers. http://bit.ly/jRRRJc
His EPA reversed research ethics standards which allowed humans to be used as “guinea pigs” in tests of the effects of chemicals, to comply with numerous codes of medical ethics. http://bit.ly/bKgqdS
Conducted a cyberspace policy review. http://1.usa.gov/gmbdvC
Provided financial support for private sector space programs. http://bit.ly/fn8ucr
He oversaw enhanced earth mapping, to provide valuable data for agricultural, educational, scientific, and government use. http://bit.ly/dNTRyP
He ushered through a bill that authorized the Food and Drug Administration to regulate tobacco products. http://on.msnbc.com/fiKViB As a result, the FDA has Ordered Tobacco Companies to Disclose Cigarette Ingredients and banned sale of cigarettes falsely labeled as “light.”
Through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, he provided $500 million for Health Professions Training Programs. http://bit.ly/ecQSgA
He also increased funding for community-based prevention programs. http://bit.ly/frMPG3
He eliminated the Bush-era practice of forbidding Medicare from negotiating with drug companies on price. http://bit.ly/fOkG5b
Two weeks after taking office, he signed the Children’s Health Insurance Re-authorization Act, which increased the number of children covered by health insurance by 4 million. http://bit.ly/fDEzGv
He held a quick press conference, and urged Congress to investigate Anthem Blue Cross for raising premiums 39% without explanation. Rep. Waxman responded by launching a probe, and Anthem Blue Cross put the increase on hold for two months. http://yhoo.it/e8Tj9C
Ushered through and signed the Affordable Health Care Act, which expanded health insurance coverage to 30 million more people, and ended many common insurance company practices that are often detrimental to those with coverage. He also established http://www.healthcare.gov/
Through the Affordable Health Care Act, he allowed children to be covered under their parents’ policy until they turned 26. http://nyti.ms/fNB26V
Through the Affordable Health Care Act, he provided tax breaks to allow 3.5 million small business to provide health insurance to their employees, and 29 million people will receive tax breaks to help them afford health insurance. http://nyti.ms/fNB26V
Through the Affordable Health Care Act, he expanded Medicaid to those making up to 133% of the federal poverty level. http://nyti.ms/ekMWpo
Through the Affordable Health Care Act, health insurance companies now have to disclose how much of your premium actually goes to pay for patient care. http://nyti.ms/fNB26V
Provisions in the Affordable Health Care Act have already resulted in Medicare costs actually declining slightly this fiscal year, for the first time in many years, according to the Congressional Budget Office. Last year’s increase was 4%. Compare that to the average 12% annual inflation rate during the previous 40 years. http://1.usa.gov/oMxpTh
He worked to provide affordable, high-quality child care to working families. http://bit.ly/fNfidS
He cracked down on companies that were previously denying sick pay, vacation and health insurance, and Social Security and Medicare tax payments through abuse of the employee classification of independent contractor. http://nyti.ms/fOGLcj
Through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act , he cut taxes for 95% of America’s working families. http://bit.ly/eSEI4F
Under Obama, tax rates for average working families are the lowest they’ve been since 1950. http://bit.ly/f74pD8
He extended and fully funded the patch for the Alternative Minimum Tax for 10 years. http://bit.ly/eFeSdP
He extended discounted COBRA health coverage for the unemployed from 9 months to 15 months, and he’s extended unemployment benefits several times. http://aol.it/evtVxD http://nyti.ms/emrqKJ http://bit.ly/hOtIpg http://bit.ly/fTT7kz
He fast-tracked regulations to allow states to enact federal fuel efficiency standards that were above federal standards. http://nyti.ms/e8e94x
He fast-tracked increased fuel economy standards for vehicles beginning with the 2011 model year. It was the first time such standards had been increased in a decade. http://politi.co/hiaPKM
He oversaw the establishment of an Energy Partnership for the Americas, which creates more markets for American-made biofuels and green energy technologies. http://bit.ly/lZp73y
His EPA reversed a Bush-era decision to allow the largest mountaintop removal project in US history. http://bit.ly/lP3yEL
He ordered the Department of Energy to implement more aggressive efficiency standards for common household appliances. http://1.usa.gov/g3MTbu
He ordered energy plants to prepare to produce at least 15% of all energy through renewable resources like wind and solar, by 2021. http://reut.rs/fV155p (As you can see, Republicans are trying hard to kill it.)
He oversaw the creation of an initiative that converts old factories and manufacturing centers into new clean technology centers. http://bit.ly/mjnq2R
Bypassed Republican opposition in Congress and ordered EPA to begin regulating and measuring carbon emissions. http://bit.ly/froaP5
His EPA ruled that CO2 is a pollutant. http://bit.ly/iQTSNN
He doubled federal spending on clean energy research. http://bit.ly/iN0sCE
He pushed through a tax credit to help people buy plug-in hybrid cars. http://bit.ly/j8UP5Y
He created a program to develop renewable energy projects on the waters of our Outer Continental Shelf that will produce electricity from wind, wave, and ocean currents. http://1.usa.gov/fgfRWq
He reengaged in the climate change and greenhouse gas emissions agreements talks, and even proposed one himself. He also addressed the U.N. Climate Change Conference, officially reversing the Bush-era stance that climate change was a “hoax.” http://bit.ly/dX6Vj3 http://bit.ly/fE2PxK http://nyti.ms/hfeqvv
He fully supported the initial phase of the creation of a legally binding treaty to reduce mercury emissions worldwide. http://bit.ly/eJ6QOO
He required states to provide incentives to utilities to reduce their energy consumption. http://bit.ly/lBhk7P
Following Bush’s eight year reign, he reengaged in a number of treaties and agreements designed to protect the Antarctic. http://bit.ly/fzQUFO
Created tax write-offs for purchases of hybrid automobiles, and later he and Democrats morphed that program into one that includes electric cars. http://bit.ly/glCukV
Mandated that federal government fleet purchases be for fuel-efficient American vehicles, and encouraged that federal agencies support experimental, fuel-efficient vehicles. http://bit.ly/h5KZqy http://1.usa.gov/fLWq5c http://1.usa.gov/hmUSbk
He oversaw and pushed through an amendment to the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 authorizing advances from Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund for the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. http://1.usa.gov/yTRYVo
He also actively tried to amend the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 to eliminate the liability limits for those companies responsible for large oil spills. http://nyti.ms/bxjDi3
He initiated Criminal and Civil inquiries into the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. http://nyti.ms/bVuB7a
Through his EPA, he asserted federal legal supremacy, and barred Texas from authorizing new refinery permits on its own. http://bit.ly/ww8eMd
He strengthened the Endangered Species Act. http://bit.ly/hscjsH
His EPA improved boiler safety standards to improve air quality, and save 6500 lives per year. http://bit.ly/jYH7nt
Through the EPA, he took steps to severely limit the use of antibiotics in livestock feed, to increase their efficacy in humans. http://bit.ly/fBuWd2
He increased funding for National Parks and Forests by 10% http://bit.ly/fbJPjY
He announced greatly improved commercial fuel efficiency standards. http://1.usa.gov/oQiC1K
He announced the development of a huge increase in average fuel economy standards from 27.5mpg to 35.5mpg starting in 2016 and 54.5 starting in 2025 http://1.usa.gov/qtghsW
He has expanded trade agreements to include stricter labor and environmental agreements such as NAFTA. http://bit.ly/etznpY
He oversaw funding of the design of a new Smithsonian National Museum of African-American History, which is scheduled to open on the National Mall in 2015. He protected the funding during the recent budget negotiations. http://on.fb.me/fD0EVO http://bit.ly/ff5Luv
Oversaw and passed increased funding for the National Endowment for the Arts. http://bit.ly/dFb8qF
He nominated Sonia Sotomayor and Elena Kagan to the Supreme Court. Sotomayor is the first Hispanic Justice in the court’s history, and the women represent only the third and fourth women to serve on the court, out of a total of 112 justices. http://huff.to/eOChg6 http://bit.ly/i02wgP
He appointed the most diverse Cabinet in history, including more women than any other incoming president. http://bit.ly/dX6vNB
He loosened the rules and allowed the 14 states that legalized medical marijuana to regulate themselves without federal interference. http://huff.to/eQfa7j
His FDA banned the use of antibiotics in livestock production. http://bit.ly/jUjLzo
Ushered through and signed national service legislation, increasing funding for national service groups, including triple the size of the Americorps program. http://bit.ly/idgQH5
Yep, a DO-NOTHING-PRESIDENT …. and this was from almost a year ago.
Republished from typepads. com
“100 Amazing Facts About the Negro”: Learn about the legend that predates Ponce de León’s legendary search.
Note: For those who are wondering about the retro title of this black-history series, please take a moment to learn about historian Joel A. Rogers, author of the 1934 book 100 Amazing Facts About the Negro With Complete Proof, to whom these “amazing facts” are an homage.
Amazing Fact About the Negro No. 61: What myth of eternal youth in Africa inspired Europeans for centuries?
Whenever he encountered a counterintuitive fact, my mother’s brother, my Uncle Ed, was fond of saying, “That’s another one of those things that ‘they’ just don’t tell us,” as if key bits of information about the order of things were systematically being withheld from black people. At the top of my own list of things we weren’t told in school is the fact that the legendary Fountain of Youth was not only thought for centuries to be located in Ethiopia, but that the man who had discovered it and ruled over it was a black man.
European artists even painted portraits of him and sometimes decorated their maps of Africa with his image. European kings, popes and explorers from Marco Polo to Ponce de León knew of him and his magical realm. That’s right: When de León and his Spanish compatriots were wandering around the swamps of Florida, trying not to be eaten by alligators, it was a black man and his mythical fountain for which they were likely searching. In fact, one way to think of the conquest of the oceans and the eventual navigation around the Cape of Good Hope in the late 15th century was that it was motivated, among other things, by the desperate search to find this black patriarch and tap into his wealth and military might. The goal wasn’t only to help liberate the Holy Land, but also to experience this king’s secrets of immortality.
Whatever his true name might have been, he was known throughout Europe as “Prester John,” the formidable priest-king of ancient Ethiopia.
The Fountain of Youth in Ethiopia
While most of us associate the fountain of perpetual youth with the New World, especially Florida, that has only been the case for the last 500 years. For a much longer stretch of history, actually, dating all the way back to the fifth century B.C., its home was believed to be in Ethiopia. Back then, the First Persian Empire touched three continents, but Ethiopia resisted invasion. In his voluminous History of the Greco-Persian War, the first grand historical narrative (440 B.C.E.), Herodotus recounted how the king of Ethiopia, protective of his lands, scoffed at the average life span of a Persian—80—while “most” of his people, “the long-lived Ethiopians … lived to be a hundred and twenty years old, while some even went beyond that age.”
At first, Herodotus writes, the king attributed this feat to the Ethiopian diet, “boiled flesh” and “milk,” but when his visitors “showed wonder at the number of the years, he led them to a fountain, wherein when they had washed, they found their flesh all glossy and sleek, as if they had bathed in oil—and a scent came from the spring like that of violets. The water was so weak, they said, that nothing would float in it, neither wood, nor any lighter substance, but all went to the bottom. If the account of this fountain be true, it would be their constant use of the water from it which makes them so long-lived.”
In 1001 Ideas That Changed the Way We Think, Robert Arp suggests this was “[t]he first recorded mention” of the Fountain of Youth in history. There had to be a reason Ethiopians appeared to live longer, and in Herodotus’ account, that reason was what Italian author Umberto Eco describes in his latest work, The Book of Legendary Lands, as “the underground spring of Ethiopia” (though Eco is quick to point out the near universality of fountain imagery in world culture, from variations on the Garden of Eden and the Romance of Alexander to the ancient myths of the Far and Middle East). In the Judeo-Christian context, man’s obsession with defying what seemed to be his inevitable fate—aging and death—sprang from his banishment from the original “earthly paradise.” Another lesson from the Bible—Psalms, 68:31, to be specific—was the prophecy: “Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hands unto God.”
Introducing Prester John
We think the arrival of Beyoncé’s latest album on ITunes this month was meteoric, but 800 years earlier, the mysterious arrival in European courts of the so-called “Letter of Prester John” ignited a search for an African king and his kingdom unrivaled in its geographic scope, one lasting centuries in endurance. Let’s just say that the quest to find this black king was no passing fad. Malcolm Letts, author of the distinguished 1947 article, “Prester John: A Fourteenth-Century Manuscript at Cambridge,” in Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, believed the story of Prester John had been transmitted orally well before his letter, so that when it arrived in Europe in the 12th century, witnesses were ready to receive—and believe—it.
Already, there had been word of a representative from Prester John visiting the Pope from “India” in 1122. (“India,” as we will see, often referred to the horn of Africa.) Then, in 1158, Otto, Bishop of Freising in Germany, published his famous Historia de duabus civitatibus. In it, he told of a visit he had observed a decade before between then-Pope Eugene III and a Bishop Hugh, of Jabala, Syria, who, in pressing for another crusade, referred to “Presbyter Iohannes” as the Christian king who had scored a decisive victory against his Persian, Median and Assyrian rivals on the other side of the Tigris River before his own horses had been stymied in crossing over it into the Holy Land.
In describing the encounter, Otto traced Prester John’s ancestry to the Magi we know as the Three Wise Men or Kings who, from the East, brought gifts of gold, frankincense and myrrh to baby Jesus during the first Christmas season. And one of the Magi, Balthasar, was said to be black, making him the Ethiopian’s king’s nth-great grandfather.
The Letter of Prester John
Nothing added to Prester John’s luster like the letter attributed to him that landed on an emperor’s desk in the year 1165 A.D., and then spread across Europe in reproductions in an astonishing multitude of translations and reproductions in the mid- to late-12th century. To be clear, no source I have read believes the “Letter of Prester John” was actually written by one of the kings of Ethiopia. In fact, the best current thinking is that it originated in Western Europe and was, as Letts writes, a Latin tapestry of borrowed sources well-known at the time, including Alexander, the Vulgate Bible and the writings of Pliny, Solinus, St. Augustine, Isidore of Seville, the tales of Sinbad the Sailor and even Jewish Rabbinical writings. Yet the myth of this African king was “irresistible,” Letts concedes, because of its “miraculous powers” to conjure a distant world, cut off from Christian Europe, so that it soon “filled the early maps with monsters and fables, gave a new impulse to geographical discovery, brought fresh hope to Christendom and provided story-tellers with material which lasted for centuries.”
The letter that would soon become fabulously famous was, as Umberto Eco reports, addressed without a date or return address to Manuel I Komnenos, the Byzantine emperor (1143-1180), but it also reached Pope Alexander III and Frederick I. Its sender’s full name was “Presbyter Johannes,rex potential et virtue dei et domini nostril Iesu Christi.” Among his many fantastical boasts about his kingdom was that it had peace without poverty, an abundance of wealth and precious stones, a sprawling palace, an invincible army, an array of ever-more intriguing creatures and a hierarchy in which 70 kings paid him tribute. “If indeed you can number the stars of heaven and sands of the sea,” its author wrote, “then you may calculate the extent of our dominion and power.”
The difficulty in tracking the original letter, Letts writes, is that it was copied and recopied so many times and in so many languages it eventually swelled to 100 paragraphs with “various interpolations.” And the more that it was reprinted, the more fanciful it became as “an early contribution to the literature of Utopias.” By Letts’ count, there were 100 different manuscripts of the letter, including 10 in the British Museum. John Mandeville was the first to introduce it in English in the 14th century, and, Letts notes, in the 13th-century German poem “Der Jungere Titurel” it was “woven directly into the story of the Holy Grail.”
Whether the letter was meant to be a piece of “anti-Byzantine propaganda” or “one of the rhetorical exercises so beloved of the learned of the period,” Eco writes, “the phantasm called up by some imaginative scribe served as a pretext for the expansion of the Christian world toward Africa and Asia, a friendly prop for the white man’s burden.” Adding to its seductive powers was its “description of a land inhabited by all kinds of monsters, rich in precious materials, splendid palaces and other marvels.” Even if it was a “monstrous fable,” as Letts writes, a fable with monsters and miracles sells, especially during the Crusades, when Christian Europe desperately needed military allies.
The scramble to find Prester John was almost immediate—but where did he actually reign? In the letter, Prester John had identified himself vaguely as ruler “in the three Indias,” which, in the 12th century, included “Nearer and Lesser India (the northern subcontinent), Further or Greater India (the south), and Middle India (Ethiopia),” according to Charles F. Beckingham in Prester John, the Mongols, and the Ten Lost Tribes. At one time or another, all were in play. When Pope Alexander III learned of him from his physician, he sent him off with a letter addressed “to his dearest son in Christ, John, illustrious and magnificent King of the Indians” (in which he cautioned him against excessive immodesty). The year was 1177, and the doctor was most likely headed for Ethiopia, Beckingham writes. Unfortunately, he was never heard of again.
For much of the 13th century, following the opening of the Mongol empire east of Europe, explorers searched for Prester John in Central Asia and the Far East, including Georgia, Mongolia, even China; then in India, home of the shrine to St. Thomas. But as men like Marco Polo struck out in finding their man, the target shifted to what they hadn’t yet seen: Ethiopia. In his letter, Prester John had described a mirror in which he could look out and see the world, but so far, the world (at least, in Europe) couldn’t see him.
The Link to Africa
“My own impression is that it was as a general title that it [‘Prester John’] first reached Europe,” Sir E. Denison Ross wrote in 1926; “that from the outset it referred to the King of Ethiopia, and that the confusion which arose in the twelfth century was partly due to the wide application of the term ‘India,’ and partly to the inaccessibility of Ethiopia.” Did race also have anything to do with this confusion?
Not really, Matteo Salvadore argues in his 2011 article, “The Ethiopian Age of Exploration: Prester John’s Discovery of Europe, 1306-1458,” in the Journal of World History. While it is certainly true that white Christians had inherited associations of blackness with evil, and of black people with the cursed descendants of Ham, given their ongoing struggle against Islam, the potential alliance offered by an African Prester John “trumped” the divide of race. “Unlike those Africans who did not qualify as either Christian or civilized and were mistreated as others,” Salvadore writes, “Ethiopians enjoyed a status of belonging within the Christian world,” starting in 341 A.D. when Christianity became the official state religion of the kingdom.
Influencing the shift of the search for John and the Fountain of Youth to Ethiopia in the 14th and 15th centuries was a series of actual diplomatic missions from Ethiopia—first to Jerusalem, then to mainland Europe. Believe it or not, Ethiopians were present in Europe as early as 1306 (at the behest of Ethiopian King Wedem Ra’ad) and in later years participated in important councils that helped form a benign impression of Prester John’s realm; though, to be clear, Ethiopians never understood why Europeans persisted in calling him “Prester John” when the real title wasNegus. Whatever differences existed between Ethiopians’ practice of Christianity and Christianity in Rome, they both focused on the enemy they shared. The most faithful of Prester John’s believers even argued he was able to control the flow of the Nile River at its source, which, if enforced, could put a serious hurt on its Muslim neighbors.
Prester John and the Fountain of Youth
To account for Prester John’s age, and work around it, Robert Silverberg writes in his 1972 bookThe Realm of Prester John that the legend of the Fountain of Youth in Ethiopia was blended in as an interpolation. Here’s the version transcribed from “a slightly later manuscript” in Silverberg’s book:
“ ‘Whoever drinks of its water three times without having eaten will have no illness for thirty years; and when he has drunk of it, he will feel as if he has eaten the finest meat and spices, for it is full of God’s grace. A person who bathes in this fountain, whether he be of a hundred or a thousand years, will regain the age of thirty-two. Know that we were born and blessed in the womb of our mother 562 years ago and since then we have bathed in the fountain six times.’ ”
In other words, Prester John was letting readers know that, by the miracle of the Fountain of Youth, he was 562 years old and going strong. As a result of this interpolation, building on the Fountain of Youth Herodotus had identified in Ethiopia 1,500 years before, “Europe’s difficulty in making contact with Prester John, then, was of no moment,” Silverberg argues; “for he was immortal, and could wait a while longer to be discovered.” Prester John was in that most exclusive club of personalities who had staying power for centuries, not years or minutes.
The Portuguese Encounter
So, did anyone actually meet Prester John? The answer is, yes, sort of. The winners of that amazing race were the Portuguese, who, from their small country on the Atlantic coast of Europe, saw in Africa the key to their burgeoning empire. In the 1400s, Prince Henry the Navigator ordered his ships down the West coast of Africa in search of Prester John, Christian allies and, he hoped, gold, spices, and that elusive Fountain of Youth. Slaves followed, first to Europe and then across the Atlantic.
In 1497, Vasco da Gama became the first European to circle the Cape of Good Hope, eventually traveling up the coast of East Africa, as we all know. What our teachers didn’t tell us was that da Gama was also carrying with him a personal letter from Manuel I, the King of Portugal, which he had commanded da Gama to present to the black king himself. Ten years before, Sir Ross notes, the king of Portugal sent another man, Pedro de Covilham, to find Prester John; and in 1490 de Covilham made it to Ethiopia after stopovers in India. The only catch: De Covilham was kept from returning by the King of Ethiopia, who considered it against “the custom of his land to allow foreign visitors to leave,” Silberberg writes. Another overture was made from Ethiopia itself in 1512, when Queen Eleni, the dowager regent for the still too-young Ethiopian king, sent an envoy to the Portuguese in Goa, India, asking for a military alliance to help smash her country’s Muslim neighbors; apparently, she even included a tiny black cross that was cut from the True Cross.
The year to remember, however, was 1520, when a Portuguese expedition under Don Rodrigo da Lima entered the realm of Prester John in Ethiopia. Critical to the embassy’s enterprise (and its memory) was the lone priest on board, Francisco Alvares, who in 1540 published his account,A True Relation of the Lands of Prester John of the Indies. In analyzing it, Cates Baldridge, author of Prisoners of Prester John: The Portuguese Mission to Ethiopia in Search of the Mythical King, 1520-1526, shows how Alvares temporized what could have been a far uglier scene of disappointment and misunderstanding. Let me cut to the chase: What Alvares found in Ethiopia of the 1520s wasn’t the proof of a myth but a young, though battle-tested ruler named Lebna Dengel, also known as Dawit or David II (1496-1540).
“His complexion might be chestnut or bay, not very dark in colour,” Alvares wrote in his journal. “He is very much a man of breeding, of middling stature.” Baldridge explains: “Since it had long been the custom for the Neguses of Ethiopia to marry the daughters of Moslem potentates on the fringes of their empire, it may well have been the cases that the successive Lions of Juda had cumulatively inherited more of the distinctly Semitic characteristics of Arabian peoples than the average Abyssinian commoner.”
Unlike in Otto’s account of the Magi connection, Negus Dengel said he believed he was descended from a long line of kings reaching back to the Old Testament’s King Solomon, who, legend had it, fathered a son, Menilek of Abyssinia, with the Queen of Sheba. As Baldridge explains, this was written down in the Ethiopian holy book, the Kebra Nagast, or “Glory of Kings” (dating from the 14th century), so that “there was a kind of rough equivalence of self-regard between the European phantasm called Prester John and the Lebna Dengel who had just laid stealthy eyes upon our priest” Alvares wrote.
While no fountain of youth was found by the Portuguese in Dengel’s realm, there was a poetic parallel: Just as Prester John had eluded European eyes for centuries, in actuality the Ethiopian Negus lived in a migrating capital of 20,000 to 40,000 people in makeshift tents that could be moved easily to keep their enemies on their toes. Because Dengel had just recently killed his Muslim rival, Mafouz, he was not immediately keen on an alliance with Portugal. However, by the time the embassy departed in 1526, Dengel was ready to reach out for what his predecessors had sought from Europe. The goals, Salvadore writes, were technology, artisans and the fulfillment of an inverse prophecy: that Ethiopia would one day be strengthened by the outstretched arms of a Frank king.
The problem was that by the time Dengel’s letters made it to the kings of Portugal, Europe’s interest in Prester John was fading. Not surprisingly, reality was less alluring than myth, and with the crusades a thing of the past, Europe was increasingly focused on its own internal struggles over Christianity, Baldridge explains. Making matters worse was the arrival of Jesuit missionaries in Ethiopia in the mid-16th century searching for converts to Roman Catholicism—not exactly the best way to build bridges. “The kingdom of Ethiopia matched the taste for the exotic that was part of the search for Prester John, but it fell far short of utopia and failed to make a serious ally against the Islamic powers,” Andrew Kurt writes in “The Search for Prester John, a Projected Crusade and the Eroding Prestige of Ethiopian Kings, c. 1200-c. 1540,” in Journal of Medieval History. As a result, “[t]he elevated status of the monarch in European minds was deflated.”
De León’s Legendary Search
That didn’t mean the search for the Fountain of Youth was over, however. While we must be careful not to exaggerate Ponce de León’s obsession with finding it in the New World (some even call it a myth), Umberto Eco describes him, in historical memory, as “the apostle of the fountain of eternal youth.” The searchers included Juan Garrido, the “first African American” we met in Amazing Fact No. 2 and in Episode 1 of my PBS series, The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross, as well as the Englishman Sir Walter Raleigh.
While the successors of de León eventually moved onto other anti-aging cures, Prester John lived on in world literature, from Shakespeare to Voltaire to Umberto Eco’s own contemporary novel, Baudolino. In this way, art has served as the true fountain of youth, constantly remakingLegendary Lands for each generation. As a devotee of The Hobbit and Lord of the Rings, I know nothing can popularize a scholarly find greater than a novelization of a classical myth. When, at last, an African mythic hero is transformed from page to screen, let it be the story of the mighty black king, Prester John, and his magical Fountain of Youth, still hidden away somewhere deep in the marvelous mountains of Ethiopia.
The makings of great leadership have been analyzed for centuries. Marcus Buckingham, in his best-selling book “The One Thing You Need to Know: …About Great Managing, Great Leading, and Sustained Individual Success,” aims to pierce through that complexity with one simple maxim:
To be a great leader, you must find what’s universal, and capitalize on it.
Unlike managers, who are concerned with the incremental growth of individuals, Buckingham says leaders “rally people to a better future.” In order to unite large groups around a single vision, leaders find success by filling universal human needs, he says. Chief among them is the need for clarity.
Leaders are able to provide clarity in four basic areas:
1. Who the organization serves: Clarifying the audience calms employees’ anxiety about trying to please everyone, he says, and focuses their thinking. That focus gives them greater confidence in their decisions.
2. The core strengths of the organization: While defining competencies may help allocate resources, more important is the emotional rather than rational response, Buckingham says. It gives employees reason to believe they will win, which fuels their persistence, resilience, and creativity.
3. The organization’s “core score” or measurement of success: Leaders should tell followers which measure they should focus on and provide a benchmark for success, he says. To limit complexity, it’s best to choose just one metric to highlight, he notes, and oftentimes improving that core score buoys several others.
4. Immediate actions to take: Talk and theory only go so far. At some point, leaders must act. Those actions provide clarity about what’s important to you, and encourage your people to follow suit. Be they systematic or symbolic actions, they establish new behaviors, emphasize select priorities and clearly show the better future you envision.
Interestingly, Buckingham believes leaders are in many ways born and not made, saying that unflinching optimism and powerful ego are the talents underpinning all great leadership.
“Properly defined, the opposite of a leader isn’t a follower,” Buckingham writes. “The opposite of a leader is a pessimist.” Talented leaders are able to clearly see the obstacles they face, he says, but still firmly believe they can overcome present challenges to create something better.
And in opposition to some leadership theories that exalt being humble and quietly powerful, he says having vision isn’t enough. You have to believe that you are the best person to see that vision out and that requires ego, Buckingham says. Great leaders must have the confidence that they are worthy trailblazers and can find the answers along the way.
Most people reading this will know that Re:Source Media’s head offices are in Toronto and so as proud Canadians we care about our domestic TV and online market. It just make sense as a media production and content creation company to know how and why, where and when people like to consume media. And so we were interested in this latest CRTC (Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission) report on the media habits of Canadians. And we think you will be too as it clearly highlights the global trend away from appointment viewing and into a world of on-demand, platform-independent consumption. We have long tried to be at the forefront of creating and delivering media to our audiences wherever and whenever they want it and as the changing habits of Canadians suggests, this is a good strategy.
This is the start of a significant change…
More and more Canadians are tuning into online movie streaming websites such as Netflix, but it has not impacted traditional television viewing as much as it eventually will according to the most recent CRTC report published last week.
The percentage of Canadians that subscribed to Netflix grew from 10 percent in 2011 to 17 percent in 2012, while the number of Canadian basic television subscribers increased by one percent to 12 million, according to the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC)’s annual report.
Canada’s population is 35 million.
“More Canadians than ever are watching and listening to content on their computers, smartphones and tablets, yet the vast majority of programming is still accessed through traditional television and radio services,” CRTC Chairman Jean-Pierre Blais said in a statement.
The amount of time spent watching television was down only slightly from 2011, averaging 28.2 hours per week, according to the report.
Collectively, Canadians watched 931.3 million hours of television per week, nearly half of which were Canadian programs.
Meanwhile 33 percent of Canadians also or instead watched Internet television, typically about three hours per week, up slightly from the previous year.
Over the coming months, the CRTC will hold public consultations that could lead to an overall in the way Canadians watch television and the prices they pay for cable or satellite television services, with new regulations to follow.
No changes are expected that would impact online movie and television streaming services, after the CRTC twice rejected calls requiring Netflix to buy a broadcasting license, which helps fund Canadian productions.
In an interview with CBC Radio last week Blais commented that broadcasting is changing and will never be the same.
He noted that almost every Canadian household once had a television set in their living room, but now the trend is moving fast toward on-demand video content that is available on various devices, including tablets.
Other facts from the CRTC annual report:
– more than two out of four Canadians owned a smartphone and more than one out of four owned a tablet in 2012;
– Canadian families spent an average of Can$185 each month on communications services;
– Canadians downloaded an average of 28.4 gigabytes (GB) and uploaded 5.4 GB per month; and,
– there were 27.9 million Canadian wireless subscribers versus 11.9 million traditional telephones at home.
Reflections on Haile Selassie
The facts of his life are well known. Haile Selassie’s influence on the world is his most enduring legacy. Born Tafari Makonnen in 1891, Haile Selassie came to be identified inextricably with Ethiopia. Only rarely in the modern world does the story of a man become so closely linked to the story of a nation. It is said that great events beget great men, but they beget failures as well, and the boundary between the two is often defined by singular acts of courage. These the Ethiopian Emperor did not lack.
Not surprisingly, the fortitude of the man sometimes referred to as “The Lion” inspired Nelson Mandela, Martin Luther King and even Malcom X, each of whom corresponded with Haile Selassie –who advocated civil disobedience when it was necessary to remedy fundamental social injustice or restore freedom to the oppressed. The Emperor’s presence at President Kennedy’s funeral is still remembered. It seems somehow appropriate that the motion picture Born Free was filmed in Ethiopia during Haile Selassie’s reign.
One speaks of leaders of men as though their public lives were completely divorced from their private ones. For a hereditary monarch, this should not be the case. What his children think of him is as important as what everybody else thinks. Haile Selassie was a devoted husband and father. His wife, Empress Menen, died in 1962. His sons, Sahle Selassie, Makonnen, and Asfa Wossen, had a great sense of duty to their father and to their people. Of his daughters, Princess Tenagne, in particular, excercised various official duties.
Haile Selassie ascended the throne in the era of polar exploration and slow communication. Africa’s oldest nation was little more than a footnote to the great stories of the day –something that Americans and Brits read about in the pages of the National Geographic. Some people still called the country Abyssinia. In certain countries far beyond Ethiopia’s borders, segregation and apartheid were long established and little questioned. Most other African “nations” were colonies. Even at home, slavery was technically still legal.
In such an era, words like “pan-Africanism” and “civil rights” were little more than esoteric philosophical notions entertained by an enlightened few. That a country as backward as Italy, whose widespread poverty prompted the emigration of millions, would seek to devour a nation like Ethiopia, was an irony too subtle to raise eyebrows outside the most sophisticated intellectual circles. With British backing, Haile Selassie returned to defeat the Italian army which, in the event, the Allies never viewed as much more than a nuisance. The British themselves considered the Ethiopian campaign in its strategic context –as a way to free the Red Sea from possible Axis control– as much as the liberation of a sovereign nation. To the Ethiopians, it was as much a moral victory as a military one.
The Emperor’s speech to the League of Nations denouncing the Italian invasion is remembered more than the aggression itself. It prompted essentially ineffectual international trade sanctions against a European nation but, like the Battle of Adwa four decades earlier, represented in a tangible way one of the few occasions in the modern era that an African nation defied the arrogance of a European one.
There were very few world leaders of the post-war era who had actually led troops in combat. Haile Selassie and Dwight Eisenhower were exceptional in this respect, which partially accounts for their close friendship.
Even when the foe is truly formidable, courage has a psychological side that has little to do with combat or physical victory. One may seem defeated materially without being defeated morally. Perhaps it’s a question of confidence, values or knowledge. Haile Selassie’s greatest strength was as a builder of bridges –across rivers but also between cultures. His travels took him to many countries, and he became one of the most popular heads of state, and one of the most decorated men in the world.
It was during one such voyage, in 1960, that he had to rush home to confront an attempted overthrow of the existing order. This perhaps served as a reminder that the most dangerous revolutions are found in one’s own house. The sovereign who was once known as a reformer now found himself resented by many members of the very social class his economic and educational policies had helped to create. Internationally, however, his prestige did not suffer. The Emperor established the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) in 1963, with a headquarters in Addis Ababa.
The revolution of 1974 was supported by outside forces, and while its roots were domestic, its covert objectives cannot be said to have been supported by more than a small fraction of Ethiopians. Truth be told, administrative practices which worked well in 1950 were terribly inefficient by the 1970s, and a series of problems were cited as a pretext for a full scale coup d’etat. Ethiopia’s pre-industrial economy was no better prepared for Marxism than Russia’s had been in 1917. Communism’s ultimate social and economic failure, in Ethiopia as well as in Russia, certainly indicates democracy’s superiority, whether that democracy is embodied by a republic or a constitutional monarchy. The Derg’s alliance with the Soviet Union made Ethiopia the instrument of a foreign power, precisely the thing Haile Selassie resisted.
He had a Solomonic pedigree, but Haile Selassie was a man of the people. Perhaps that’s how he should be remembered.
Unfortunately that means an hour less for her to celebrate or sleep on her birthday… which happens to be the same day.
On this date 45 years ago, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee.
6. Douglass also founded the Abolitionist Newspaper“The North Star” ..
Popular literature in the West speaks of “men being from Mars and women being from Venus.” Well, in Chinese astrology, the Horse is associated with male and its complementary sign, the Sheep, with female characteristics. Independence is the “male” characteristic epitomized by the Horse. Anyone who loves cowboy movies knows the first thing a cowboy does upon riding into town is to tie up his Horse. You are most likely adventurous, fun-loving and enjoy the outdoors as well as a variety of sports. It’s no chore to get you to go to the fitness center to work out, but you truly enjoy the combination of working out and being outdoors–hiking, jogging, biking, rock wall climbing.
You can be a human dynamo. Furthermore, you can stay in an action mode a lot longer than the rest of us. Others probably see you as a vivacious person due to your high energy level. It’s not only your vitality that catches our attention and wins our respect. You’re quick in both mind and body, and cut a dapper, colorful figure as you rush in and out of our lives. In general you must have things your way—now. Occasionally impatient and rash, you tend to engage in impulsive behavior more than the rest of us. In truth stability is not your strong suit. You are fickle, especially when it comes to fashions
You are a fun member of any team and likely to be found where the action is. Yes, even though you are most independent, you still love to be around lots of people. The catch is it’s you who decide when and where the party will be. No one ever said you were afraid to make a decision. It wouldn’t be surprising if you’ve been accused of being headstrong more than once. Add to this a stubborn streak and a bit of a temper, and you can be difficult to be around at times.
You can also be selfish and self-indulgent as you pursue your interests oblivious to ours. You can be hard to live with when you don’t get your way. This independent streak of yours and your emotional aloofness can be a magnet for those of the opposite sex. People always seem to be drawn to what they cannot have. But like the Eagles songs says, “Desperado you better let somebody love you, you better let somebody love you before it’s too late.” In other words, do not let your independence be an obstacle to true love.
The horse ranks seventh of all the animals in the Chinese zodiac.
People born in the year of the horse are extremely animated, active and energetic. Horses love to be in a crowd, and they can usually be seen in such occasions as concerts, theaters, meetings, sporting occasions, and parties. With a deft sense of humor, horses are masters of repartee. They love to take center stage and delight audiences everywhere.
Sometimes, the horse is a little self-centered, but it doesn’t mean that he will not be interested in any problems except his own. However, a horse person is really more cunning than intelligent, that is probably due to the fact that most horse people lack confidence.
Basically, horse people are very healthy, most likely because they hold a positive attitude towards life. However, heavy responsibility or pressure from their job may make them weak. Therefore horse people shouldn’t do overtime too often and then come home very late. Also, they should refuse some invitations to join parties at night.
Jobs involving communicating with others attract horse people most. The sign of horse stands for leadership, management and decision-making. Horse people dislike taking orders. The horse can make it in any career that demands neither solitude nor meditation, for he is an extrovert and he needs to be surrounded by people who approve of him and flatter him. Good career choices for horses include: publicist, sales representative, journalist, language instructor, translator, bartender, performer, tour operator, librarian or pilot.
People born during the year of the horse have a pleasant, amiable, easy-going disposition. With good humor and geniality, they are extremely comfortable to get along with, for they have the ability of instantly putting people at their ease. They are very quick-witted and are right in there with you before you have had the chance to finish what you were saying; they are on to the thought in your mind even before you’ve expressed it. All these guarantee their popularity and a large following of friends.
Thank goodness for open spaces, because the Horse needs plenty of room to roam! Energetic, good with money and very fond of travel, Horses are the nomads of the Chinese Zodiac, roaming from one place or project to the next. All of this Sign’s incessant activity and searching may be to satisfy a deep-rooted desire to fit in. Paradoxically, Horses feel a simultaneous yearning for independence and freedom. Horses crave love and intimacy, which is a double-edged sword since it often leads them to feel trapped. Love connections tend to come easily to Horses, since they exude the kind of raw sex appeal that is a magnet to others. This Sign tends to come on very strong in the beginning of the relationship, having an almost innate sense of romance and seduction. Horses are seducers in general; check out any A-list party and you’re bound to find the Horse in attendance. This Sign possesses a sharp wit and a scintillating presence; it really knows how to work a crowd. Surprisingly, Horses tend to feel a bit inferior to their peers, a misconception that causes them to drift from group to group out of an irrational fear of being exposed as a fraud. An impatient streak can lead Horses to be less than sensitive to others’ needs. These colts would rather take a situation firmly in hand as opposed to waiting for others to weigh in or come to terms with it. The lone wolf inside the Horse can at times push others away, but this also makes this Sign stronger and is a key to its success. Horses are self-reliant and, though they might lose interest fast in a tedious, nine-to-five day job, are willing to do the work necessary to get ahead. Horses tend not to look much at the big picture; instead they just follow their whims, which can result in a trail of prematurely ended relationships, jobs, projects and so on. This Sign really knows how to motivate others, though, and get a lot accomplished. Once they find some peace within themselves, they can curb their wandering tendencies and learn to appreciate what’s in their own backyard.
Best with: Tiger, Goat or Dog
Worst with: Rat, Ox, Rabbit or Horse
Love: 2014 will see variable fortune for Horses in love. If you are single, you may expect new encounters but, sadly, these will not be of a romantic nature. If you are married, be wary of quarrels; you may need to rethink your position on some issues, but good will come out of it should you do so. This year, new marriages may prove more difficult than in other years. Horses generally should be wary of friction within their relationships this year; disagreements are liable to becoming particularly heated.
Career: Be particularly wary of competitive colleagues and other potential rivals at work. You will have many choices this year in the path of your career, but should you choose to take them you will face stiff competition. Those in the public sphere need to be particularly wary of this, and of underhand behavior on the part of underlings. Private business is also likely to face difficulties in the year ahead.
Wealth: Horses should not trust to luck this year; the outlook is unstable, and caution is required. Any gains are liable to be offset by additional expenses. Though there are some auspicious signs, these are unpredictable, so treat any seemingly glowing opportunity with care.
Health: As the Chinese appropriately say, ‘horse-horse, tiger-tiger’, a phrase meaning ‘so-so’. Take particular care of your health and safety. This particularly applies should you find yourself around – or worse, on – lakes or rivers in the fifth lunar month.
General Outlook: 2014 will prove a challenging year. There are too many malevolent stars that will beset you for you to walk away unscathed, so be cautious on the larger issues that you may be affected only by those smaller and of lesser importance. You yourself will be prone to error, so heed advice from friends and elders. Make sure you have a solid financial plan this year so as not to enter into crisis on that front, and don’t take any financial risks. Be wary of your relationships; approach them with caution and keep your temper. This year in particular, you will need others to be cooperative and on-side.
While Dragons and Snakes are confined to the west, Horses are similarly confined at the opposite end of China. Stay east, and don’t think of galloping off anywhere else. Graze in easterly pastures and you will be fine. There’s plenty of grazing to do.
There can be few names of foreign cities more romantic in the mind of the foreign visitor than Shanghai given its long connection with the outside world through land possession and international trade. The Shanghai of today is certainly a destination to tick off your list so now, Horses, is the time to do so. In its modern form as an up-to-date international metropolis, Shanghai can, at times, seem like another country outside China altogether. Long-standing connections overseas have given the city a uniquely cosmopolitan flavor all its own unmatched within the rest of the nation and rarely matched outside it. It is now the largest and most successful of China’s commercial cities, its importance such that it qualifies as a municipality in its own right, one of four under direct central government control as they seek to preserve its unique status. No surprise that its ancient heritage and modern atmosphere make it one of China’s top four tourist destinations. Horses should be sure to trot along to the Bund and the Oriental Pearl Tower, the most famous of Shanghai’s landmarks, but there’s plenty to see after that. There are too many museums to mention here, colonial architecture including some magnificent churches, theaters,parks,shopping malls, anything and everything for all tastes and interests. Don’t miss out on the old towns which have been swallowed up in Shanghai’s expansion while retaining their cultural heritage. Zhujiajiao and the old traditional buildings in the Qingpu district are particularly worthy of attention.
The capital of Jiangsu province, Nanjing has a long and troubled history. One of the four major ancient capitals of Imperial China alongside Xi’an, Beijing and Luoyang, it has served both as a cradle for Chinese civilization and as a magnet to those who would disrupt it. Nanjing’s is a painful history into which to delve too deeply, but for the lighter, more creative side of what this ancient city has produced we would recommend the visiting Horse check out the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum, the Confucian Temple, the Yuhuatai Tomb of Emperor Zhuyuanzhang and his Queen, the Folk Art Museum, and top it all off with a relaxing stroll along the pretty Qin Huai river.
The capital of Zhejiang Province, situated on the Yangtze River delta, Hangzhou has its own unique feel given its location on the West Lake, arguably the most famous lake in all China. This lake has gained such worldwide renown in its own right and in its surrounding scenery that many locations are listed by the World Record Association. It is said that ‘As there is paradise in Heaven, so there are Suzhou and Hangzhou on earth’. Nor is scenic beauty the only attraction. With a history of some 2,200 years since its foundation, Hangzhou is rich in culture, much of it again to be found around the lake itself. Given that much of your time here should really be spent around the lake area, we would recommend hiring a bicycle and considering renting a boat to cruise the waterways.
Often coupled with Hangzhou given their proximity, as in the quote above, Suzhou has its own atmosphere quite distinct from that of Hangzhou. Listed as a primary city for its historical and cultural background, established in 514 BCE, its 2,500 year history as of this very year, your year, the Year of the Horse, has made it one of China’s top ten tourist destinations. That history is largely focused upon the Wu people, giving it a unique color on the map of China for the Wu’s singular attitude and approach to life.
The most remarkable and memorable aspect of Suzhou is to be found in its traditional and ancient gardens. These are many, and to be sought out by the traveler for their fantastic variety and points of focus, whether they be built upon a theme of flowers, shrubs or rock formations. There can be nowhere better than Suzhou in which to see this ancient Chinese tradition of landscape art. Don’t get too caught up in the gardens, though. Exploration of Suzhou’s winding waterways, small bridges and alleyways, and the ancient architecture that is scattered throughout the city is something not to be neglected.
Huangshan is the famed ‘Yellow Mountain’, an area of some of the most fantastic scenery to be found not only in China, but also anywhere on earth. Be prepared for a lot of hiking here, and your reward will be some of the most spectacular sites you have ever seen. Located in the south of Anhui province, head for the Huangshan district of Huangshan city and you can’t miss it. It’s pretty big. What makes Huangshan unique is the sheer variety of forms and delights to be found here, all the classic images and experiences of pines clinging to fantastic rock formations, seas of cloud and, for relaxation, there are even hot springs located here, everything anyone could ever want from all mountains all here in one.
This may be your year, Horse, but don’t think you can have your way in everything. Inauspicious stars mean that Beijing, Tianjin, Dalian, Luoyang, Datong and, indeed, anywhere north is best avoided.
The second emperor of Qin (230 BC-207 BC), or Ying Huhai, was the youngest son of Qin Shihuang.
Emperor An of Han, or Liu Hu (94 AD-125 AD), the sixth emperor of the Eastern Han Dynasty.
Zhang Daoling (34 AD-156 AD), the founder of Taoism.
Genghis Khan (1162-1227), known as the first emperor of the Yuan Dynasty, was the leader of the Mongol Empire.
Emperor Yongzheng of the Qing Dynasty (1678-1735), the fourth son of Emperor Kangxi.
If any city in China has moved forward at a gallop, that city is Shenzhen. In the few decades since China’s opening-up policy was put into action, Shenzhen has exploded out from very humble beginnings into a huge metropolis, testament to its advantageous location for trade situated next to Hong Kong and with favorable access to the sea and thus international commerce. When it comes to sheer commercial power, those few decades have seen Shenzhen rise to fourth position behind Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou. There can be no other place in China as symbolic of the rapid changes that have taken place in the nation as a whole.
However, Shenzhen is not all about economics. This is a vibrant, lively city packed with life and activity given that it has a largely youthful population drawn in from all quarters in China. Nor has it lost all its scenic attractions in the thrust to modernization, while it has added a few scenic spots of its own in its modernity. Check out ‘Splendid China’, (‘锦绣中华’)Sea World, (海洋世界); the Wildlife Park, (野生动物园); the Rare Botanical Garden, (珍稀植物园); and don’t forget the beaches, with some of the prettiest and most clement bathing opportunities around China.
The spirit of the horse is recognized to be the Chinese people’s ethos – making unremitting efforts to improve themselves. It is energetic, bright, warm-hearted, intelligent and able. Ancient people liked to designate an able person as ‘Qianli Ma’, a horse that covers a thousand li a day (one li equals 500 meters).
People born in the year of the horse have ingenious communicating techniques and in their community they always want to be in the limelight. They are clever, kind to others, and like to join in a venture career. Although they sometimes talk too much, they are cheerful, perceptive, talented, earthy but stubborn. They like entertainment and large crowds. They are popular among friends, active at work and refuse to be reconciled to failure, although their endeavor cannot last indefinitely.
They cannot bear too much constraint. However their interest may be only superficial and lacking real substance. They are usually impatient and hot-blooded about everything other than their daily work. They are independent and rarely listen to advice. Failure may result in pessimism. They usually have strong endurance but with bad temper. Flamboyant by nature, they are wasteful since they are not good with matters of finance due to a lack of budgetary efficiency. Some of those who are born in the horse like to move in glamorous circles while pursuing high-profile careers. They tend to interfere in many things and frequently fail to finish projects of their own.
Horoscope and Numerology Elements
Earthly Branch of Birth Year: wu
Wu Xing (The Five Elements): huo (fire)
Yin Yang: yang
Auspicious Directions: northeast, southwest and northwest
Lucky Colors: brown, yellow, purple; Avoid: blue, white, golden
Lucky Numbers: 2, 3, 7; Avoid 1, 6, 5
Lucky Flowers: calla lily, jasmine, marigold
Zodiac Sign Compatibility - Best match: tiger, sheep, dog; Avoid: rat, ox, rabbit
Celebrities Born in the Year of the Horse
Louisa May Alcott, Chopin, Davy Crockett, Ella Fitzgerald, Aretha Franklin, Sandra Day O’Connor, Rembrandt, Teddy Roosevelt, Sir Isaac Newton, Barbara Streisand, Cindy Crawford, Cynthia Nixon, Denzel Washington, Harrison Ford, Jason Biggs, Jackie Chan, Jerry Seinfeld, John Travolta, Leonard Bernstein, Oprah Winfrey, Paul McCartney, Rembrandt, Ashton Kutcher, Emma Watson, Josh Hartnett, Katie Holmes, Kristen Stewart, Kobe Bryant, Genghis Khan, Emperor Kangxi and Yongzheng of China’s Qing Dynasty (1644 – 1911)
Fortune Foretelling in 2014
Overview: It is their order to encounter the Year of Birth (Benming Nian), a year to offend “Taisui’, the god in charge of people’s fortune. In 2014, their fortune in all aspects will fluctuate, so will require great care. They may feel more stressed out, in which case they are advised to talk about it with close friends or councilors, and take part in group activities. Faced with any difficulties, they should be strong to overcome them all. If they treat people around them friendly and behave righteously, they will get through the year smoothly.
Career: Horse people are easily offended this year even for trifles, and seem not to keep a harmonious relationship with colleagues. Sometimes they doubt themselves too much, leading to a gradual loss of confidence. When finishing a task, they seek confirmation again and again from people around them. In this case, it is suggested to be confident and talk more to family instead of complaining to colleagues. Just keep a low profile, get along well with your boss and be careful of tricks by mean people and then achievements in your job will come.
Wealth: Their financial fortune will be unstable in 2014. It seems that there will be much unexpected cost. Thus to make ends meet comes first When managing money matters, they should consider accepting others’ suggestion. It is necessary to be careful to make any investment. Businesspeople should make a full scheme before making a large amount of investment, because the market will be changeable in the year.
Relationships: The fortune in love life for horse people will be just so-so. If they would like to get married in the year, it is strongly suggested to select an auspicious date according to the dates of birth of the bride and the bridegroom, or they will suffer a lot in marriage. Singles may meet several people that they have feelings for, but none of them are doomed to be their Mr./Ms. Right. If faced with a dilemma, they’d better refer to the idea or suggestion of their relatives and friends. Husband and wife will argue a lot in the year; a focus on communication and mutual understanding can avoid it. For all lovers, mutual trust is the secret for an everlasting relationship.
Health: As they offend “Taisui” this year, they may suffer some discomforts. Some insidious diseases like dermatitis may happen. To avoid that, they’d better have a full physical examination. Besides, they also need to be careful to avoid unexpected injuries by knives and others sharp items. Females should pay attention to problem in urinary system and males need to care more about their stomach. Adjusting their emotions and traveling outside will help with their health as well. They also need to remember not to eat too much for each meal.
You might be surprised at my answer. It’s … You already know. Here’s the reason. You see of the 12 Chinese Astrology sign, Horse is the one that most closely resembles the characteristic of the animal, horse. But let me help you organize your thoughts. I want you to think about three places where you can find horses, cowboy movies, the racetrack, and the arena.
We learn a lot about horses in those old westerns. For example, the first thing a cowboy does when he arrives in town at the beginning of the show is to tie up his horse. They’re independent critters. So individual effort is favored this year. And in relationships – don’t be surprised if that special someone doesn’t want to be tied down. It’s also not unusual for a partner to wander off, just like the horse that isn’t tied up properly.
And how about those movie scenes where a herd of wild horses is majestically moving across the open range! Freedom. The open spaces. Adventure. Power. Yup. The outdoors and the environment are big this year. Get as much of the outdoors as you can into your vacations. By the way, you want to get in shape so you can run with those horses.
Speaking of running. How about the race track! Speed, getting a quick jump on the action, madly rushing to the finish line. Things’ll happen quickly. The pace fast. High drama. Passion. Quick thinking wins the day. You snooze, you lose. Get the picture? The race for glory. And there’ll be plenty of it. It’s a time to get in the game, to make your maximum effort. To run hard. But remember this, you have your limits. Everyone does. So make sure you get enough down time. Another caution. Opportunities could come fast and furious. Make your plans now. There’s always a risk with hasty decisions. But, you can reduce it by thinking about what you want before you have a need to jump into the fire.
Did I mention passion? Maybe I rained on your parade earlier. Stay with me. There’s an upside to relationships. Love and sex come alive with the Horse in charge. Again, think about the track. Drama leading up to the race. The gun goes off. A few minutes of frantic action. And it’s over! I think you get the point. You might get lucky, but for the most part forget about creating a lasting relationship or finding your soul mate (unless your sign is Sheep). On the other hand … Fleeting romances you have this year could become some of the most fun times of your life. So enjoy them.
Last but not least. The horse is a graceful animal. And it’s not just the track where we see it. Think about the equestrian events at the Olympics or a performance of the Lipizzaner Stallions in Vienna. You can expect to see great performances at the movies, theater and concerts. If you’re an entertainer, this is the year you’ve been waiting for! Flair. Style that flaunts itself. Might be time to kick your wardrobe up a notch. I’m not talking excess. Just enough to make sure you’re noticed. Maybe you’re shy. I’d never tell anyone to change who they are, but … Well, can you at least let go once in a while.
Therefore, 2014 is also called
Chinese Astrology is a prediction theory using Yin-Yang Five Elements. The astrological birth chart built by Chinese Astrology Calendar is a combination chart of Yin-Yang Five Elements and 12 animals. Five Elements are Metal, Water, Wood, Fire and Earth. Twelve animal are Rat, Cow, Tiger, Dragon, Dragon, Snake, Horse, Sheep, Monkey, Chicken, Dog and Pig. All animal signs can be converted into Five Elements, Therefore, every birth chart has its own Five Element weights. Chinese Astrology use Yin Yang balance theory to predict people’s fortune.
The Chinese astrology symbol for 2014 Green Horse Year is . Before predicting your 2014 fortune regarding to your money, career, marriage or health, you have to know what Type of Element you are and what your Lucky Element is.
The Lucky Element is the major factor to determine people’s good fortune. Basically, if 2014 of Green Horse contains your Lucky Element, then 2014 will be your good year. 2014 is Green Wood Horse year. Horse is in Fire group. Therefore, if your Lucky Element is Wood or Fire, then you will do well in 2014.
To know your birth chart, Five Element scores and your Lucky Element is from the Chinese Astrology Lucky Element page using your date of birth and time of birth. Your Lucky Element
The following is the example of the Chinese Astrology Birth Chart.
The Birth Chart of June 15, 2008
Fire represents the person. This Birth Chart shows Fire-Type Person
This person was born on June 15, 2008 or June 30, 1948. The symbol of the upper row of the Day Column (a.k.a. Day Master) represents the person. So we can sayDay Master is Male Fire, which represents the person. The birth chart has too little Metal and needs more Metal to balance the Five Elements. Therefore, the Lucky Element is Metal.
2014 is Male Wooden Horse year. Horse contains mainly Fire. Therefore, 2014 is Wood on the Fire. Wood can help Fire to burn hotter, higher and longer. This birth chart already has too much Fire. The strong Fire of 2014 makes this birth chart even more imbalanced. It’s is not a good sign. The extremely stronger Fire lets this short-tempered person become even more hot-tempered. The irritating personality will bring very poor and hostile relationships with friends and siblings. Furthermore, the bad investment, money loss and financial problems will come after.
Fortune and Lucky Element
The following table shows people’s luck in 2014 based on their Luck Element.
When Metal is your Lucky Element, then 2014 is not a good year to you.
Horse of 2014 contains mainly Fire. Metal is afraid of Fire. Metal and Wood of 2014 are opposite elements; they have fighting relationship. Luckily, Horse contains Female Earth, which has attraction relationship with Wood of 2014 into Earth. Earth is the mother element of Metal. Metal shouldn’t be hurt by Fire too bad. But the fortune of 2014 is quite little. If Water is found in the birth chart or Major Cycle, then that can cool down the Fire and help Metal to survive. If Dragon or Cow is found in the birth chart or Major Cycle, then Metal will have the protection when Fire attacks. In this case, 2014 should be fine. If Metal is weak and hurt by Fire of 2014, then you need to pay attention on your respiratory system, because Metal is connected to lungs.
If Water is your Lucky Element, then 2014 is not a good year to you.
Horse of 2014 contains Fire and Earth. Although, Water is not afraid of Fire. But Earth of Horse can protect Fire from attacking by Water. Also, Wood of 2014 makes Fire stronger. That means Water cannot win over the Fire of 2014. Water should be too weak to help the birth chart ,therefore the fortune of 2014 is limited. If Water is extremely weak in the birth chart, then we might have to pay attention on your kidneys, the urinary system.
When Wood is your Lucky Element, then 2014 is a good year to you.
2014 is a Wooden Fire Horse year. Fire is the child element of Wood. Mother Wood always helps child Fire to burn stronger. Wood does the giving without taking. Eventually, Wood will burn into dust. That implies 2014 will bring some kind of opportunities first, then those opportunities will disappear. Therefore, when we get help or advice from people, we need to learn from them as much as possible. We need to prepare to do job by ourselves when the helpers are not available. If there is no Fire or little Fire in the birth chart, Fire of 2014 will become very helpful. This is because Wood (Tree) need water, earth and sunshine to grow taller and stronger. When lucky element Wood gains support from Fire, then stronger Wood will bring your better luck in 2014.
When Fire is your Lucky Element, then your luck in 2014 is excellent.
Horse is the strong animal containing Fire. Wood is the mother element of Fire. Wood can help Fire to burn longer. Wood also can protect Fire from extinguishing by Water. Wood and Fire together form a perfect combination for Fire. The fortune of 2014 will come very soon and last for at least one year long. Although, Fire is the lucky element, you still need to keep your mind on your heart, cardiovascular system during strong Fire Year.
When Earth is your Lucky Element, then your luck in 2014 is very good.
2014 is Male Wood Horse Year. Horse contains Female File and Female Earth. Fire is the mother element of Earth. Earth is afraid of Wood. But Male Wood of 2014 and the Female Earth inside Horse have attraction relationship into Earth. That implies Horse can turn Earth’s enemy into its friend. 2014 might bring a little trouble at the beginning, but it will end up a good result. Just be patience, something will be changing different and better right after spring.
When Metal is your Day Master…
Wood of 2014 represents money or wealth to Metal. Therefore the money event will appear in 2014. If you have strong Metal in your birth chart, then you will have better money luck will be better. This is because you had known how to mange the money in the past. You should have a chance to increase your income, investments or wealth. But if you have a weak Metal in the birth chart, then you will feel short of money soon or later.
Snake of 2013 contains Fire. Horse of 2014 also contains Fire. Metal is afraid of Fire, which represents pressure, job, boss, teacher, career, trouble or law to Metal. Basically, your career luck will be same to 2013. If you were doing well in your career in 2013, then your career luck will continue and you might have better career promotion opportunity to expand your power and working responsibilities during 2014. If you have trouble in your career in 2013, then the job pressure will be still there in 2014. You might have much more workload and tighter schedule for your tasks.
2014 Wooden Horse contains Wood and Fire. Wood is money and Fire is career. If you are own your business and have strong Metal in the birth chart, then your business will grow more than your expectation and company’s profit will increase much more than previous year. If you work for someone with strong Metal, then you should have a job promotion or people will pay you more for your work. Money and career will arrive in the same pace.
But if you have weak Metal and Metal cannot fight against Wood and Fire, then money and job will bring you big trouble. If you are a business person, then you might have money loss in your business or you will pay penalty for your mistake in business. If you are an employee in an organization, you cannot be greedy on money. You have better not to receive illegal money. Otherwise, money will bring you bad reputation, even a lawsuit.
If you are a man, then Wood of 2014 is connected to women, girlfriend or wife. If you are single, then you should have chances to meet some women in the social networks. If you are married, then you will spend more time in activities with your spouse. If you are a woman, then Fire of 2014 connects to your boyfriend, husband or love opportunity. Therefore, a single woman should increase their social activities to meet more opposite sex. A married woman will spend time with her husband or her own career.
When Water is your Day Master…
Wood of 2014 represents your outlook, performance, speech, behavior, freedom or expression. That means 2014 is the time to show your talent to people. Your social life makes you a little bit busier. If you become popular, the people will know you better. Therefore, Wood relates to your fame or reputation. If people like your manner, then you should earn a good reputation from them. If people don’t like your way, then people will give you negative reputation.
Fire of 2014 Horse represents your money, wealth, luxury life and financial status. The Fire Horse of 2014 is the continuation from Fire Snake of 2013. If you have good money luck in 2013, then the money luck will keep coming toward you. If you suffer the pain of money in 2013, then the money pressure will be there waiting for you to resolve.
Horse of 2014 also contains Earth, which presents the career, pressure or law. If you have strong Water in your birth chart, then both of your money and career luck will be great in 2014. If you Water is too weak in the birth chart and cannot accept the challenge from money and career pressure, then bad health might come after. If people cannot properly manage money, then there is a chance to encounter a lawsuit because of money,
Water people will face the challenge from reputation, money and career in 2014. It’s hard to win them all. But if they have good planning with confidence inside themselves, then it’s not difficult to earn money with reputation or money with career in the Wooden Horse Year.
Horse contains Fire, which is connected to girlfriend or wife to a man. Horse contains Earth, which is connected to boyfriend or husband to a woman. Therefore, Horse brings love opportunity and relationship for Water people. If you are single, you should attend more social activities. You should have chances to build good friendship. If you are in love, then you will spend more time with your love in 2014.
When Wood is your Day Master…
Wood of 2014 represents your friends, siblings, or same generation relatives. You will spend some of your time with them in 2014. If your Wood is weak in the birth chart, then 2014 will be good year to you because your friends or relatives will be around to help you whenever you need. They will provide good advice, which will make your job easier and bring your money investment luckier.
If your Wood is strong in the birth chart, then your relatives or friends will bring money trouble to you. It’s not a smart move to have risky investment with them or provide them a short-term loan. However, we sometimes have to spend money to help someone we love for their health, education, business, career or special events. And this might happen in 2014
Fire of 2014 Horse represents your speech, behavior, outlook, expression or talent. It’s time to make yourself becoming popular. If your performance is good, then you will hear lots of compliments from people. You will enjoy the social activities a lot with your friends. If people don’t your words and acts, then you will get bad reputation from them. The social life will make you tired.
Earth of 2014 Horse is connected to your money, finance or wealth. If you earn good reputation from people, then you will earn more income via that reputation. If your reputation is bad out there, then you will have difficulty to bring in money into your pocket.
Wood people will spend most of time to deal with friends, reputation and money in 2014. If you have good people relationship, then that friendship will help you to bring in great money and decent wealth all the way. But if you social connection is poor, then you don’t have to expect good luck in money.
Earth of 2014 is also connected to girlfriend or wife to a man. If you are male, then your love opportunity or love relationship will be better than a female. Usually, a man has a good love relationship, when he has good income during that moment.
When Fire is your Day Master…
Wood of 2014 represents your parents, mentors, elders, protection, knowledge, education or medicine. Therefore, you will often contact your parents or persons who care you. Or you will spend more time in learning knowledge. Or you will pay attention on your health. Or you are planning to buy a valuable property. Or you feel lots of support in your career path. All these are the sign of Wood to Fire people in 2014.
Fire of 2014 Horse represents your siblings, relatives or same generation friends. Since you will spend most of your time with them, your social activities will increase. When similar age people meet together, either they spend money together, or they group as a team to earn money. If your Fire is strong in the birth chart, then you usually act as a group leader. Most of time, a team leader will do more giving than taking. From fortunetelling angle, a team leader will take less money into his pocket. If your Fire is weak in the birth chart, then you will get more support, advice, benefit from your group. Your money luck will be better than the group leader.
Earth of 2014 Horse represents your outlook, performance, expression or behavior showing to people. Fire of Horse brings many of your relatives and friends to you. Earth of Horse gives you opportunity to perform and show off. If your birth chart already contains lots of Earth, then people around you will criticize you talking too much. If your birth chart only has little Earth, people will listen when you talk and send you compliment. Either way, you will feel relaxing, freedom and joyful.
2014 brings you the love from family, elders, friends and youths. You will deal and contact with more people, since the increasing of social life. Sometimes, you need to be patience with people, strong Fire of 2014 might bring you short-tempered, which will bring you bad reputation. If you have blood or heart disease, then you need to check out your cardiovascular system before summer.
When Earth is your Day Master…
Wood of 2014 represents your job, career, boss, police or law. Your behaviors or activities will encounter some restrictions. Or your work at company will bring you pressure. Or you might be losing courage when facing a big challenge. If you are a female, then 2014 also is a year for love relationship because Wood is connected to boyfriend or husband.
Fire in 2014 Horse represents your parents, elders, education, knowledge, or health. Therefore, you will spend some time to contact your parents, elders. You might focus on education to expand your knowledge and skills. You also might watch your health often. Fire is the mother element of Earth. 2014 will bring more support, safety, protection and stronger determination.
Earth in 2014 presents your siblings, friends or same generation relatives. Therefore, 2014 will be busy year for you to hang around your old and new friends. That’s a sign of money opportunity. Friends might advise and inform you the location of treasure. So you know where to get it. But it might be the other around, your friends want to share your treasure, then you need to donate some to them. This might happen, if you have strong Earth in your birth. In short, if Earth is your lucky element, then it brings you extra income. If Earth is an unlucky element, then money loss is possible.
2014 contains Wood, Fire and Earth, which are related to career, support and confidence. If you have trouble on the career before, then 2014 is a very good year for your career development. You have good job opportunity in 2014, people around like to support you and you have more confidence to take the challenge position. This is a sign of success in career.
2014 is Year of the Horse and it will arrive on February 4, 2014 in China Standard Time. The first day of Chinese astrology year is the first day of the Tiger month. That is the day of Start of Spring in the Chinese Astrology Calendar. The Start of Spring is the time when the sun enters the 315th degree on the tropical zodiac. The Start of Spring in China Standard Time is at 6:04 A.M. on February 4, 2014. This day is not the Chinese New Year day. 2014 Chinese New Year Day is on January 31, 2014 in China Standard Time. Chinese New Year Day is the new moon day of the first lunar month. The new moon time is at 5:39 A.M. of January 31, 2014 in China Standard Time.
The Start of Spring in US Eastern Standard Time is at 17:04 P.M. on February 3, 2014, and in the US Pacific Standard Time is at 14:04 P.M. on February 3, 2014. Therefore, the 2014 Horse year starts on February 3, 2014 in US time zones.
Chinese Astrology uses one’s birthday and birth time to predict their fortune. The astrological birth chart is built by the Chinese Astrology Calendar, which is a combination counting system of Yin-Yang Five Elements and 12 animals. The Five Elements are Metal, Water, Wood, Fire and Earth. The twelve animal are Rat, Cow, Tiger, Dragon, Dragon, Snake, Horse, Sheep, Monkey, Chicken, Dog and Pig. Year of 2014 is Wooden Horse. Because Wood (tree) is connected to the color of Green.
Therefore, 2014 is the Year of Green Wood Horse .
We don’t want to use Chinese animal sign from the birth year to predict people’s fortune here. We are going to use a much more accurate method by using techniques from Chinese Professional fortunetellers to do a 2014 prediction. The method is from the theory of Yin-Yang Five Elements to predict people’s fortune. The philosophy of Yin-Yang is the Balance. Traditional Chinese Astrology is a discussion about the balance of Five Elements. Each animal sign contains different Five Elements inside. So every animal sign can be converted into Five Elements. You can find your animal signs, Five Element weights and the astrological birth chart from ourChinese Astrology page.
Before predicting your fortune regarding to your money, career, marriage or health in 2014, you have to know what Type of Element you are and what your Lucky Element is from your Astrology Birth Chart. The Lucky Element is the major factor to determine people’s fortune. 2014 is the Year of the Green Wooden Horse, which contains Fire and Earth. If your Lucky Element is Wood, Fire or Earth, then 2014 will bring you some degree of fortune. The strongest element of 2014 is Fire. Therefore, People whose lucky element is Fire will get most benefits in 2014.
For details and an accurate predictions, the first step to know your fortune is to know which elements and animals are in your birth chart. You can find that information from the Chinese Astrology Lucky Element page using your birthday and birth time.
Your Lucky Element
The following is the example of the Chinese Astrology Birth Chart.
The Birth Chart of June 15, 2008
Fire represents the person. This Birth Chart shows Fire-Type Person
Fortune Basic – Lucky Element and Day Master Type
2013 was the Year of Black Snake. Snake is the first year of the Fire cycle before Horse. The Fire of Snake is heat from the rising sun reaching to the top of sky. The Fire of Horse is the heat from ground which absorbs heat from the sun on the top of the sky. The Fire of Horse is hotter than the Fire of Snake. If you do great in 2013 because of Fire, then you will do even better in 2014.
2014 is Male Wood Snake Year. The Male Wood is connected to a tall tree. A tree needs sunshine, earth and water to grow stronger and taller. Horse contains Fire and Earth. If your birth chat contains water and Wood is your Lucky Element, then you will do well in 2014, too.
The following table shows people’s luck in 2014 based on their Luck Element.
|Lucky Element||How good is my luck in 2014?|
|Metal||It’s no good. Horse of 2014 contains mainly Fire. Metal is afraid of Fire. Metal and Wood of 2014 are opposite elements; they have fighting relationship. Luckily, Horse contains Female Earth, which has attraction relationship with Wood of 2014 into Earth. Earth is the mother element of Metal. Metal shouldn’t be hurt by Fire too bad. But the fortune of 2014 is quite little. If Water is found in the birth chart or Major Cycle, then that can cool down the Fire and help Metal to survive. If Dragon or Cow is found in the birth chart or Major Cycle, then Metal will have the protection when Fire attacks. In this case, 2014 should be fine. If Metal is weak and hurt by Fire of 2014, then you need to pay attention on your respiratory system, because Metal is connected to lungs.|
|Water||It is no good. Horse of 2014 contains Fire and Earth. However Water is not afraid of Fire. Fortunately, the Earth of Horse can protect Fire from attacking by Water. Also, Wood of 2014 makes Fire stronger. That means Water cannot win over the Fire of 2014. Water should be too weak to help the birth chart, therefore the fortune of 2014 is limited. If Water is extremely weak in the birth chart, then we might have to pay attention to your kidneys, the urinary system.|
|Wood||It is fine. 2014 is a Wooden Fire Horse year. Fire is the child element of Wood. Mother Wood always helps child Fire to burn stronger. Wood does the giving without taking. Eventually, Wood will burn into dust. That implies 2014 will bring some kind of opportunities first, then those opportunities will disappear. Therefore, when we get help or advice, we need to learn from our sources as much as possible. We need to prepare to do the job by ourselves when help is not available. If there is no Fire or little Fire in the birth chart, Fire of 2014 will become very helpful. This is because Wood (Tree) needs water, earth and sunshine to grow taller and stronger. When lucky element Wood gains support from Fire, then stronger Wood will bring you better luck in 2014.|
|Fire||It is excellent. Horse is the strong animal containing Fire. Wood is the mother element of Fire. Wood can help Fire to burn longer. Wood also can protect Fire from extinguishing by Water. Wood and Fire together form a perfect combination for Fire. The fortune of 2014 will come very soon and last for at least one year long. Although, Fire is the lucky element, you still need to keep your mind on your heart / cardiovascular system during strong Fire Year.|
|Earth||It is very good. 2014 is Male Wood Horse Year. Horse contains Female Fire and Female Earth. Fire is the mother element of Earth. Earth is afraid of Wood. But Male Wood of 2014 and the Female Earth inside Horse have attraction relationship into Earth. That implies Horse can turn Earth’s enemy into its friend. 2014 might bring a little trouble at the beginning, but it will end up with a good result. Just be patient; something will be changing and become better right after spring.|
The following table informs people’s what event may occur in 2014 based on their Day Master Element Type. Day Master is the upper row symbol in the Day Column of the Birth Chart.
|Day Master Type||What will happen in 2014?|
|Metal||Wood of 2014 represents money or wealth to Metal. Therefore a money event will appear in 2014. If you have strong Metal in your birth chart, then you will have better money luck. This is because you knew how to mange the money in the past. You should have a chance to increase your income, investments or wealth. But if you have a weak Metal in the birth chart, then you will feel short of money soon or later.Snake of 2013 contains Fire. Horse of 2014 also contains Fire. Metal is afraid of Fire, which represents pressure, job, boss, teacher, career, trouble or law to Metal. Basically, your career luck will be same to 2013. If you were doing well in your career in 2013, then your career luck will continue and you might have a better career promotion opportunity to expand your power and working responsibilities during 2014. If you have trouble in your career in 2013, then the job pressure will be still there in 2014. You may even have more workload and a tighter schedule for your tasks.2014 Wooden Horse contains Wood and Fire. Wood is money and Fire is career. If you own your business and have strong Metal in the birth chart, then your business will grow more than expected and the company’s profit will increase much more than the previous year. If you work for someone with strong Metal, then you should have a job promotion or a potential raise or bonus. Money and career will arrive in the same pace.But what if you have weak Metal? Metal cannot fight against Wood and Fire. Money and job will bring you big trouble. If you are a business person, then you might have money loss in your business or you may pay a penalty for a mistake in business. If you are an employee in an organization, you cannot be greedy with money. You better not receive illegal money. Otherwise, money will bring you bad reputation, maybe even a lawsuit.If you are a man, then Wood of 2014 is connected to women, girlfriend or wife. If you are single, then you should have some chances to meet some women through social networks. If you are married, then you will spend more time with your spouse. If you are a woman, then Fire of 2014 connects to your boyfriend, husband or love opportunity. Therefore, a single woman should increase their social activities to meet more of the opposite sex. A married woman will spend time with her husband or her own career.|
|Water||Wood of 2014 represents your outlook, performance, speech, behavior, freedom or expression. That means 2014 is the time to show your talents to others. Your social life will make you a little bit busier. If you become popular, people will know you better. Therefore, Wood relates to your fame or reputation. If people like your mannerisms, then you should earn a good reputation. If people don’t like your ways, then people will give you a negative reputation.Fire of 2014 Horse represents your money, wealth, luxury life and financial status. The Fire Horse of 2014 is the continuation from Fire Snake of 2013. If you have good money luck in 2013, then the money luck will keep coming toward you. If you suffer the pain of money in 2013, then the money pressure will be there waiting for you to resolve.Horse of 2014 also contains Earth, which presents the career, pressure or law. If you have strong Water in your birth chart, then both of your money and career luck will be great in 2014. If Water is too weak in your birth chart and cannot accept the challenge from pressure in money and career, then bad health might come after. If people cannot properly manage money, then there is a chance to encounter a lawsuit because of money.Water people will face challenges from reputation, money and career in 2014. It’s hard to win them all. But if they have good planning with confidence inside themselves, then it’s not difficult to earn money with reputation or money with career in the Wooden Horse Year.Horse contains Fire, which is connected to a girlfriend or wife for a man. Horse contains Earth, which is connected to boyfriend or husband for a woman. Therefore, Horse brings love opportunities and relationships for Water people. If you are single, you should attend more social activities. You should have chances to build a good friendship. If you are in love, then you will spend more time with your love in 2014.|
|Wood||Wood of 2014 represents your friends, siblings, or same generation relatives. You will spend some of your time with them in 2014. If your Wood is weak in the birth chart, then 2014 will be good year to you because your friends or relatives will be around to help you whenever you need. They will provide good advice, which will make your job easier and bring your money investment luckier.If your Wood is strong in the birth chart, then your relatives or friends will bring money trouble to you. It’s not a smart move to any have risky investments with them or provide them with a short-term loan. However, we sometimes have to spend money to help someone we love for their health, education, business, career or special events. And this might happen in 2014.Fire of 2014 Horse represents your speech, behavior, outlook, expression or talent. It’s time to make yourself become popular. If your performance is good, then you will hear lots of compliments from people. You will enjoy social activities with your friends. If people don’t your words and acts, then you will get bad reputation from them. Such a social life will make you tired.Earth of 2014 Horse is connected to your money, finance or wealth. If you earn good reputation from people, then you will earn more income via that reputation. If your reputation is bad out there, then you will have difficulty to bring in money into your pocket.Wood people will spend most of time to deal with friends, reputation and money in 2014. If you have good people relationship, then that friendship will help you to bring in great money and decent wealth all the way. But if your social connection is poor, then you don’t have to expect good luck in money.
Earth of 2014 is also connected to girlfriend or wife for a man. If you are male, then your love opportunity or love relationship will be better than a female. Usually, a man has a good love relationship when he has good income.
|Fire||Wood of 2014 represents your parents, mentors, elders, protection, knowledge, education or medicine. Therefore, you will often contact your parents or persons who care you. Or you will spend more time learning. Or you will pay attention to your health. Or you are planning to buy a valuable property. Or you feel lots of support in your career path. All these are signs of Wood to Fire people in 2014.Fire of 2014 Horse represents your siblings, relatives or same generation friends. Since you will spend most of your time with them, your social activities will increase. When similar age people meet together, either they spend money together, or they group as a team to earn money. If Fire is strong in your birth chart, then you usually act as the group leader. Most of the time, a team leader will do more giving than taking. From the fortunetelling angle, a team leader will take less money into his pocket. If Fire is weak in your birth chart, then you will get more support, advice, and benefits from your group. Your money luck will be better than the group leader.Earth of 2014 Horse represents your outlook, performance, expression or behavior to people. The Fire of Horse brings many of your relatives and friends to you. Earth of Horse gives you an opportunity to perform and show off. If your birth chart already contains lots of Earth, then people around you will criticize you talking too much. If your birth chart only has little Earth, people will listen when you talk and send you compliments. Either way, you will feel relaxed, free, and joyful.2014 brings you love from family, elders, friends and youths. You will deal and connect with more people from the increase of social activities. Sometimes, you need to be patience with people. Strong Fire of 2014 might make you short-tempered, which will bring you bad reputation. If you have blood or heart disease, then you need to check out your cardiovascular system before summer.|
|Earth||Wood of 2014 represents your job, career, boss, police or law. Your behaviors or activities will encounter some restrictions. Or your work at company will bring you pressure. Or you might be losing courage when facing a big challenge. If you are a female, then 2014 is also a year for a possible love relationship because Wood is connected to a boyfriend or husband.Fire in 2014 Horse represents your parents, elders, education, knowledge, or health. Therefore, you will spend some time to connect with your parents and elders. You might focus on education to expand your knowledge and skills. You also might watch your health more often. Fire is the mother element of Earth. 2014 will bring more support, safety, protection and stronger determination.Earth in 2014 presents your siblings, friends or same generation relatives. Therefore, 2014 will be busy year for you to hang around your old and new friends. That’s a sign of money opportunity. Friends might advise and inform you the location of treasure or possible money luck so you know where to get it. But be careful, it might be the other around. Your friends may want you to share your treasure, then you will need to donate some to them. This might happen, if you have strong Earth in your birth chart. In short, if Earth is your lucky element, then it will bring you extra income. If Earth is an unlucky element, then money loss is possible.2014 contains Wood, Fire and Earth, which are related to career, support and confidence. If you had trouble in your career before, then 2014 is a very good year for your career development. You have good job opportunity in 2014. People around you want to support you, and you will have more confidence to on more challenges. This is a sign of career success.|
Female Earth and Male Wood have a Stem Attraction Relationship into Earth. Horse also contains Earth. Therefore, if Earth is your lucky element and you have Female Earth in your birth chart, then 2014 will be your lucky and joyful year. If Female Earth is your Day Master (upper low of the Day Column in the birth chart) and you are a female, then it’s possible that a love relationship, engagement or marriage is coming toward you.
Pig contains Male Water and Male Wood. Horse contains Female Fire and Female Earth. Male Water and Female Fire have attraction relationship into Wood. Male Wood and Female Earth have attraction relationship into Earth. Therefore Pig and Horse have hidden double attraction relationships, which is good for people, in both social and love relationships. If a person was born on Earth Pig Day, then 2014 will be a marriage or romantic year.
In Chinese astrology, Horse is a Romantic Star to the people born in year of Cow , Snake or Chicken . If you were born on Cow, Snake or Chicken day, Horse is your Romantic Star, too. When the Romantic Star comes to your birth chart, you will have more opportunities to meet opposite sex and your love relationship will develop faster and deeper.
Male Metal and Male Wood have a Fighting Relationship. Rat and Horse have a Fighting Relationship. Both of fighting relationships imply poor social relationships, which makes it hard for these people to find a close friend or love relationship. If you are in love now. then your love relationship could slow down.
Horse is the hottest animal in the Fire group. If both Snake and and Sheep are found in your birth chart or current 10-Year Major Cycle, then three of them form the strongest Fire combination. If your lucky element is Fire, then 2014 will be one of the wonderful years in your life.
If both Tiger , and Dog are found in your birth chart or current 10-Year Major Cycle, then three of them form another powerful Fire combination. If your lucky element is Fire, then 2014 will bring you a big surprise and you will remember it for life. If Male Fire or Female Fire are also found in birth chart or 10-Year Major Cycle, then people will admire your luck in 2014.
If Horse is already found in the birth chart, then 2014 brings in another Horse into the birth chart. When two Horses together, the temperature will be even hotter. That implies people become impatient and easily become irritated. If the person makes a mistake because of their short temper, then the person will blame himself. Because of this, he might then make another mistake or accident afterwards.
2014 is a strong Fire year. When Fire is ignited, the flames of Fire will go high very quickly. Therefore, when something related to Fire is going to happen, it will arrive before you know it. Usually, the flame of Fire cannot last too long. That means you need to prepare to receive the fortune when the opportunity appears. Otherwise, the opportunity will come and disappear too soon.
Chinese Pictographic Character – Horse
Chinese character Wu using in the astrology calendar means noon, not horse. The traditional Chinese character of the horse is Ma . There is no good explanation for why ancient Chinese selected Horse as the nickname of Wu. The invention of Chinese Horse character is quite interesting.
The “100 Horses” or “100 Steeds” was painted by Giuseppe Castiglione, who was a Italian Jesuit brother, missionary and painter at the court of the emperor in China. Giuseppe Castiglione had a Chinese name Lang Shi-Ning. He was born in Milan, Italy in 1688. He arrived China in 1715 and severed the first three emperors of Ching Dynasty. He died and was buried at Forbidden City, Beijing, in 1766.
The “100 Horses” hand scroll has more than seven meters long depicts a scene of taking a herd of horses out to pasture in autumn. The hundred steeds are shown in a variety of poses and activities as they leisurely make their way around the pastures and trees. This Chinese art is mixing traditional Chinese brushwork and Western painting skills.
New Year’s Day, the first day of the Lunar New Year. Chinese New Year (Spring Festival) Chinese folk most distinctive of the most solemn traditional festival, which marked the end of the old year and the lunar new year start. New Year’s Eve, and generally refers to the first day. But in private, traditional Spring Festival is the eighth day of the twelfth lunar month of December from the festival or the twelfth lunar month 23 or 24 of Jizao, until the fifteenth day, of which New Year’s Eve and the first day for the climax. During the Spring Festival, China’s many ethnic Han Chinese and have held various activities to celebrate. These activities are worship deities, and pay homage to ancestors, blow away the cobwebs, Ying Hei Blessings, pray for good harvest as the main content. Rich variety of activities, with a strong ethnic characteristics.
January 31st is the start of Chinese New Year in 2014… it is the Year of the Green Horse.
Spring Festival is also called lunar year, commonly known as “New Year”, “New Year.” Chinese New Year symbol of unity, prosperity, a new hope for the future sustenance of the festival.
First day ancient Mongol, Yuan Chen, Yuan-cheng, Yuan Shuo, New Year, the Year once, beginning of the year, towards the old and new is, first Zuo, ternary or year, Chinese New Year, the first year since the beginning of the Han Dynasty was in the beginning to the summer in (Lunar) first day as a “beginning of the year” (ie “year”), which fixed the date of New Year, continues to this day. New Year is called as “New Year’s Day.” Revolution of 1911, they began using the Gregorian calendar (Gregorian calendar) per year, gradually became known as the Gregorian calendar on January 1 as the “New Year’s Day,” said the first day of Lunar New Year “New Year.” Country attaches great importance to the protection of intangible cultural heritage, May 20, 2006, “Spring Festival” Folk by the State Council approved the inclusion of the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage.
Xxiii, Tanggua sticky;
XXIV sweep the house;
XXV, grinding tofu;
XXVI, to the flesh (stew stew);
Xxvii, slaughter a rooster (chicken kill tumor);
Xxviii, the surface of hair;
29, steamed buns;
Thirty at night boil,
New Year’s Twist.
Twelfth lunar month 23, also known as “small year”, is a private Jizao day. Folk in the “Twenty-three Tanggua sticky” refers to the twelfth lunar month 23 per year or 24 Jizao, the so-called “official boatman Sanmin four five” argument, which is official in the twelfth lunar month 23, generally in homes in the 24 boat dwellers was held on 25 Jizao.
Send Zao Jun, the number of beggars in some places there were, disguised, went house to house singing songs to send Zao Jun, jump to send Zao Jun dance, called “Song Zaoshen” in exchange for food.
The twelfth lunar month 23 Jizao have a close relationship with the New Year. Because, in the week after the New Year’s Eve night, so she took a kitchen god who should get the good and bad fortune, together with the other gods came to earth. Kitchen God is considered to lead the way for the sky gods. Other gods in heaven again after New Year, only the Kitchen God, will long remain in people’s kitchens. To meet the gods of the ceremony known as the “Theosophical” on the kitchen god is called “access kitchen.” Usually in the kitchen then New Year’s Eve, the ceremony is much simpler to just put a new kitchen when the lights, burn incense before the shrine in the kitchen even if the bin.
“The twelfth lunar month XXIV dusting sweep the house,” the customs, long time. According to the “Spring and Autumn Annals” records, there is the Spring Festival in China in the era of Yao and Shun sweep dust customs. By the private sector saying: because of “dust” and “Chen” homophonic, spring sweep dust have “addition to the new cloth Chen,” meaning, the intention is to make all the “poor transport”, “bad luck” were all swept out. New channels of this practice sustenance of people’s wish and pray for New Year’s.
Days on the old customs that the Kitchen God, Emperor of the Jade Emperor in person at the lower bound of lunar December 25 and investigate human good and evil, fortune and is scheduled for the coming year, so every family festival of the blessing, known as the “take Jade.”On this day living, speech should be cautious, for good performance to win the hearts and minds of the Jade Emperor, bless the coming year.
Song Zaoshen only on days to bring back New Year’s Eve, during which human atheism jurisdiction holds-barred, folk and more funerals, known as the “age of chaos in time.” Chaotic years of age is designed to regulate the people for their own specific time of social life. End of the year-end, people with leisure and savings, usually rare for people who have the energy to make arrangements for the event, this is a good time. Therefore, real-life needs of people according to the invention of this special time folk. Can be seen, in the traditional society, people rely on folk life of the order is to adjust the.
According to Tian silkworm also called “burning fields silkworm”, “Field burning money”, is popular in the southern area of civil pray customs. This day will be the twelfth lunar month twenty-five torch strapped up in the fields of Chang Gan, divining the New Year with a flame, the flame is harbinger of the coming year prosperous harvest. Some places in the New Year’s Eve at the event.
Festival of Lights is one thousand Mongolian, Daur religious festivals. Mongolian “the next dry Zhuola”, which means one thousand Lantern Festival. The twelfth lunar month twenty-five this day, to do “that dry Zhuola” to the temple to light that points the more the more auspicious. This holiday customs, most Mongolians in Xinjiang virrat popular. Local people on this day to eat roast beef and mutton, a traditional sports recreation activities.
Traditional folk to focus on these two days to take a bath, laundry, remove the bad luck year in preparation for next year’s Chinese New Year, the capital of “twenty-seven wash remorse disease, xxviii wash dirty” adage. The twelfth lunar month twenty-six bath to “wash Fluke.”
In rumor goes: “twelfth lunar month 28, rice cake steamed bun paste flower.”
Surface of the twelfth lunar month twenty-eight steamed buns made twelfth lunar month 29
Children according to old arguments that start from the first to fifth day of the bread and stir-fry over high heat can not move, so the old habits in the Danian twenty-eight Beijing, twenty-ninth two days to do the staple food. As the Spring Festival avoid doing steamed, fried, fried, baked and other cooking, and steam and fight homophonic, homophonic fried and noisy, fried and fried (four tones) euphony, branded and off the euphony, are unlucky, so the old Beijingers in years ago, the family have enough to eat steamed bread a week or so, called the following year to eat.
New Year’s feast of steamed food in addition to bread, there are some other pasta. Shizong descendants Wanyan Zuo Yin in the “test Kangxi relic anecdotes accessories listed in” New Year’s feast of steamed Manchu had: steamed buns, steamed hi, steamed rolls, steamed Zaoni side garden, steamed red bean bag round, steamed bread descendants, steam wishful wraps. Chinese New Year when the bread, the above points to be used for rouge red dot to show auspicious. Now the absence of so many taboos, want to eat bread during the Spring Festival, you can buy at any time.
People praying in the new year family and the U.S. United States, proceeds smoothly, so he deliberately discordant harmonic things that sound to eleven away. Although this steamed bread baking something a little trouble, but there are a lot of people are still willing to stick to this elders passed down in culture.
The day before New Year’s Eve, called “Little New Year’s Eve,” family home banquet, people between the visit is “not old.” Incense in the outdoors, called “Fantasy”, usually three days.
Annual Lunar New Year’s Eve is the evening of the last day of the twelfth lunar month, with Chinese New Year (first day) end to end, also known as “New Year’s Eve.” ”New Year’s Eve” in the “addition” is the word ‘go; easy; alternate “means New Year’s Eve means” to do on the poor old “people have a new addition to the old unit, there is the old year and in addition to this, other new ones coming year old means is a lunar year last night. Therefore, during the activities are centered around the new addition to the old unit, Prayer for the center.
Zhou, Qin period of a year will do when the palace to hold a “big Nuo” the ceremony, drumming expel pestilence ghost, known as “by addition”, after the day before New Year’s Eve, also known as a small addition, that Xiaonian Ye; except for the big New Year’s Eve, the Danian Ye.
Goalkeeper has posted all over the country the custom of New Year. The original carved mahogany door god is for the human form, hanging next to the man, later painted door god portraits posted on the door. Legendary god Tu, Yu Lei brothers special tube ghost, they hold a door, the size of evil can not start damage. After the Tang Dynasty, there are paintings Reggie Qin Qiong, Yuchi King Tak as the keeper of the two, as well as draw Guan Yu, Zhang Fei as the keeper of. Households around the statue of a door, and their offspring often put one pair of door gods painted a text of a force. Keeper of three types: first is the “door keeper” and more attached to the door or the door on the whole, about four five feet high, two feet wide. The second category is “Street gate keeper” and more posted on the street door, about two feet high, one foot wide. Both goalkeeper is a bad cop bad cop a two deity.Black and white left-right, white good and easy, black and odious, each armed with lance ax. The third category is the “door keeper”, smaller than the Street gate keeper is limited, but also black and white two gods, but there is a black and white statue of the gods. Door up to the posted “unicorn ever been,” like, two powder coated grease comb Fu crown prince doll, all by Kirin. The goalkeeper, shall be affixed to the door on a new marriage, in order to get lucky, and later also for ordinary street door of the New Year dressing up.
Couplets Yiming, “the door of the”, “Spring quote,” is a couplet, as posted in the Spring Festival, hence the name. One source is the Spring Festival couplets. Initially it was the peach wood hanging on the door to ward off evil human form, the door was painted on the statue in mahogany, cherry wood board and then reduced to the keeper’s name inscribed. Another source of spring couplets posted. Beginning Day posted in more than the ancients, “Yichun” word, the latter gradually developed into couplets. Real popularity began in the Ming Dynasty scrolls, and advocate of the emperor. According to the ancient Shang Qing Chen, “hairpin Guoyunlou miscellaneous said,” recorded a year to prepare the New Year when the emperor ordered to be posted one on each door couplets, to show to celebrate. The original scrolls inscribed in mahogany board, and later rewritten in the paper. Mahogany color is red, red with good fortune, the meaning of evil, so most red paper couplets written. But the temple with yellow paper, mourning (mourning under) white, green and yellow, with white the first year, second year green paper, yellow paper the third year, fourth year of mourning before resuming full red the paper. Because of the Manchu still white, clear court couplets with white, blue bag on the outside edge, red stripe inlay on the inside.
When the midnight delivery is midnight, New Year’s bell sounded, over the entire land of China, firecrackers rang Sky. In this “Year of the yuan per month, when the yuan” and “triple” time, some places still in the yard barrier “stir,” to show the busy air sky, booming prosperous. Stir around in burning, the children set off firecrackers, happy to jump, then, the lights inside the house is brightly lit, pre-trial is a bright spark, and outside is the sound of thunder, the excitement of New Year’s Eve into a climax . Ancient poet of letters is always the best poem in praise of the coming New Year.Wang’s “Mongol” poem:
Mongol (Song Wang)
King’s harvest was ordered to tone, stretch down bag full rejuvenation.
Well the night six thousand feet, gold liquid, into the nine-Xia Xiao spring feast.
New Year (Ming Wen Zhengming)
Ye seek to meet but do not pass, to the full name of the paper toward the spacious Cottage.
I voted in tandem with the number of paper, never too virtual world situation too simple.
Fengcheng New Year speech (clear check Cautious)
Qiao Sheng test Silla cut streamers, color painting for trouble gilt moth;
Spring Song (Ming Yuan Hung-tao)
The east wind warm Loujiang tree, Sanqu nine street smoke condensate. White broken Xuefei Ma Ju-lung, calf cars rolling through Hong degree water.
Pat to go around blowing smoke, Hyun service Liangzhuang 100,000. Luo distinctive color wins the amount of play, community song-filled cluster Mountain God.
Fei Yi Jin with clothing such as fighting, the forefront after a long house prefect. New tales of black yarn Palace flower, blue slave kneeling into the Su Tu wine.
Picking on a jade plate for buildings, both songs boy hair white female. Legendary old music three thousand, Suzhou new spectrum thirteen cavity.
Hu first jump like a tiger mask, narrow shirt embroidered pants hammer drum. Ghost gold python fine cotton body makeup, white Goddess of Mercy dance together in prayer.
Jin is a mountain with the viewer, who points to stagger wire and meat. Wind all the way to Hong laughter, drunk cover thousands of miles Hong Sha Yu.
Ching Lin pale pinkish purple tunic skirts, skirts bun through the amount of light makeup. Lost Youth of praise and sisters, Kenjiro sleeve to throw seeds.
Tian Mongol (Meng Tang)
Fight back to the North last night, at the present age of the East;
I was already strong, non-agricultural Lu still worry.
Father on the farming Kuwano, hoe with the boy;
Mongol Yuk Chun (Song Mao Pang)
In addition to the night (Song Tianxiang)
Empty, heaven and earth, time to dignified;
End for surprise rain, the poor side of full Xueshuang.
In Yujin with life, body and forget all the world;
No-Su Tu dream, stay up the night is young.
Firecrackers of the year, vase into the Su Tu.
Set world tables, this is a temporary altar is dedicated New Year’s Eve of the table. Usually no special attention to large temple of heaven and earth desk at home, because usually offer less for the Buddha, to the end of the year-old Buddha do when a big reward, in addition, this table is mainly used for the Theosophical. World tables of contents with different perennial temple, in addition to a total of hanging money, incense, five for large than for its worship of idols is also affected by mostly temporary, such as: “percentage”, which is a wood statues carved version of the album; “Heaven and earth realms eighteen Buddhist gods”, is a wood with a large yellow water color of the creators Mao Bianzhi code; Gods Samsung portraits. Above all, as some Theosophical after incineration, such as “percentage.” Some are required to break five, or even to the Festival of Lights was burned. Put the position of the table is not a unified world, such as the main room where large, can be placed in the house, such as the house without land, they placed in the courtyard. Legend of the night when the lower bound for the heavenly gods, so people have this Theosophical customs.
Children playing firecrackers when the housewives in the kitchen is also the most busy time, New Year’s feast days are the first well, but always in the New Year’s Eve dinner the same day the chef to make it. In the north, New Year’s dumplings have to pack up within thirty at night. Then every family of cutting boards are busy in the thump thump thump to cut meat, vegetable. At this point, every household heard the sound of the chopping block, the streets came the sound of firecrackers, shop shop came the “crackling” sound and cadence of the calculations are accounted for sound, and then mixed with the laughter everywhere, one after another, ocean Yinger, woven into a lively music of New Year’s Eve.
New Year’s tricks many different parts of north and south, there are dumplings, ravioli, long face, lantern, etc., and their own stress. Northerners used to eating dumplings Chinese New Year is to take the inter-face “more years of age pay child” means. And because the flour dumplings shaped like silver ingots, pots of the tables a symbol of “New Year fortune, gold roll in.” means. Some dumplings, the boiling water after disinfection also several coins into the bag, tell you who was the first eating, and will be able to make more money. The custom of eating dumplings, is passed down from the Han Dynasty. According to legend, St. Medical Zhongjing in deepest winter, to see the poor ears were frozen rotten, they produced a “dispelling the cold Jiao ear soup” to the poor governance of frostbite. He lamb, pepper and some dispelling the warm medicines, into the ear with a face like a bag, “Jiao ear”, the pot boiled, give to the poor to eat, people to eat, I feel whole body warming, ears fever. , People follow the do, has been passed down to today. New Year to eat ravioli, whichever is the meaning of the early opening. Legend of the previous generation the world is chaotic state, Pangu epoch, the universe only four, long face, also called longevity noodles. New Year noodles, is a pre-birthday long years.
New Year’s money is distributed by the elders, younger, and some home after dinner is finished, everyone at the table not allowed to go, so we are finished, issued by the younger elders and encouraged the children and grandchildren in the new year learning self-improvement, a good man.Some people are children of the parents to be fast asleep at night, on their pillow, the more people are children who gathered at the main hall, shouting grandparents, parents Happy New Year, lined up bow; then ask for a red envelope. Grandpa even recovered her mother’s bedroom, the bed went together, a lot of noises special shout: “lucky money, lucky money!” Elderly not enough excitement, pretending to be stingy, besieged by the bargain to explore, and finally dug out red envelopes of our ancestors, We looted, it sped scattered. This scenario was overjoyed every elderly, that this is the New Year every success good luck. New Year to New Year’s money, reflecting the care of the younger elders, respect for elders and younger people, ethics is an integrated family relationship folk activities.
Samsung in the South, every family New Year;
Junior children’s kowtow, elders give money to children’s.
No money, Niulian children left.
Theosophical distinction for the old and new years, but have not unified the Theosophical time.Some one to midnight ceremony began, some to the “child is” when the midnight start Theosophical, while others are in the “child is” after the party received. Jizao, the gods are back to the Temple, ignore human mundane, to the New Year’s Eve, after midnight, the new year comes, they come to earth director. Theosophical ceremony held at the world table, the longest by a host family. Because the gods of the different orientation of the home to heaven, when the lower bound to the direction of the naturally different, as then any god, where god come from, to pre-check is good, “written constitution”, and then move to lead the family in the hospital in Hong access by position God.Xinwei years as the “constitution book” on the instructions: “God of Wealth east, south mascot, your God, northeast, southwest hi god, Jupiter southwest of God.” By position Koushou Libi, the incense stood to be doing, kowtowed again, and finally the root incense, statues, gold ingots removed, placed in a prepared already in the hospital burning money and grain basin. Incineration with burning pine, sesame stalks and so on. Theosophical when the firecrackers, the atmosphere is very strong.
Theosophical, it will spread sesame stalks from the street door to door, people walk on, pops pair of silent, known as the “hit-year-old,” also called “step away evil spirits.” As the “broken” and “evil spirit” are homonyms, began to drive out the evil spirit to take New Year’s means.
Ancient, ancestor worship rituals are filled. Due to the different parts of customs, different forms of worship, some to the wild Joan ancestral tomb. Han Chinese ancestors, most do fish bowl dishes, bowls filled with high, rather Zhongming Ding food intended. Southerners Refugees in Beijing, ancestor worship is particularly grand, most of the eight bowl dishes, set in the pot, cup and chopsticks set by the souls, in the New Year’s Eve, New Year, per night, will fan the pot, ready for cooking. Flag clan ancestors, Manchuria and Mongolia is different from the Mongolian yellow banner for the butter fried rice, fried with sesame oil withdrawal for the time, dipped in sugar, and another flavor. Manchu banner worship, for walnut cakes and hibiscus cakes, apple, plain wax sandalwood, quiet Su exception. New Year’s Eve and New Year’s Day cake for prime cooking, for the Spring Lantern Festival night, burning incense and kowtow to the daily morning and evening, offering for the new tea. Although the different forms of worship, most of all New Year’s Eve hanging shadow, Spring withdrawal for the night, close friends and family matter, New Year, also must call Ye Zuxian Tang, not just reverence for his ancestors Zhiyi is not deleted, because people respect the virtues of their ancestors , we also saved.
Old, from the Spring Festival from midnight to open the door money, there is sent to the God of Wealth, the hand holding a piece of paper printed the god of wealth at the door shouted: “Send Treasurer’s coming!” When the house owner, in order to welcome Wealth, they take the tips to come, sending the mouth of the God of Wealth, of course, always found something to say auspicious words. For example: “gold and silver roll in.” it! ”Gold lion on the left side, right side of the Golden Phoenix ‘it! So like the mouth of color. There is also a God of Wealth is dressed as the appearance, wearing a red robe, wearing Shamao, fake beard hanging from his mouth, the yellow body carrying a money bag, followed by several drums, and from house to house God of Wealth like to distribute to discuss tips. Each door to others, it sang: “Zuoxiang library full of gold and silver, on the right treasure room full heap.” Unlucky, then a lot of discussion, without a break in the mouth, until the owner happy to take over as Treasurer goes on red paper , give them some money, those who play God of Wealth, profuse, you energetically beat while, in the sound of gongs and drums pound, Qiang Qiang, go to another home.
Su Tu wine is a wine. In the ancient custom, the Mongol family Su Tu drink wine, to remove errors of the gas. Su Tu wine production is: a money rhubarb, Campanulaceae, Chuanjiao each one fifth of the money, Guixin an eighth of the money, money cornel a half, wind one or two, to purple-red capsule containing the suspended wells, Yuan take effect on Yin Shi, Jiu Jian forty-five to boiling. Su Tu ancient drink wine, the method is very unique. Most people drink, always starting from the elderly to drink; Su Tu drink wine, but just the opposite, is from the young to drink from. About the young person grew up, the first drink to show their congratulations, while older people over a year at least one year, after drinking to show retention. Song writer Su Che’s “except on” Poetry: “The Su Tu mid last drink, feel more than seventy years.” That is the custom. This spectacular drink order, in ancient times often give rise to all kinds of emotion, and so it left a deep impression.
Spring Festival, commonly known as “New Year”, was originally called “New Year” in the Sui Dynasty Qing Du Taiwan “five candle Collection”, said: “Celebrate the end of May, the day of Mongol, Yiyun moving, Yiyun Yuanshuo.” “Dollars” The intention of the “head”, after the idea was “the beginning”, because this day is the first day of the year, the first day of spring, the first month of the first day, so called “Three”; because of the day or towards the aged, months North Korea, Japan’s North Korea, so called “dynasties”; and because it is the first Hatsumi, so called “Yuanshuo.” First day there the previous day, moving, three moon, three before and so another name, which means that first day is the year, month, day three started.
China is an old multi-ethnic country. Different historical periods have had different peoples according to their own cultural traditions and customs had their New Year’s Day determined that the words “our rules”, the beginning of a period of time to correct. Zhuan Xu Emperor and the summer generations to Meng first month Yuan, using built-yin of the lunar calendar to lunar calendar first day of New Year’s Day; Shang use Yin Li, Yin Li Jian ugly to lunar month first day of New Year’s Day; Zhou use week calendar, weekly calendar built son, who started for the New Year in lunar month; Qin Qin calendar use, Qin Li Jian Hai, the first day of the Lunar New Year’s Day; still use the pre-Qin Li Han, Han was in the beginning the first year (AD 104 years) to switch to Sima Qian, Luo created under the Hong primordial experience, again using the built-yin of the lunar calendar, the first day of the Lunar New Year’s Day. In addition to Wang Mang and once after the switch to build ugly Emperor Ming Yin Li, Tang Empress Wu and Su-tsung of the week when children use to build calendar, the lunar calendar of the dynasty to the Qing Dynasty are used.
Spring morning, open the door down, the first firecrackers, called “open firecracker.” Firecrackers, the broken red everywhere, illuminating as heavenly brocade, known as the “full house.” At this time the streets Bling ahead.
An important activity in the New Year, is home to friends and neighbors of new friends there, congratulations to Chinese New Year, formerly known as New Year. Han Chinese New Year of the wind, Han has. After the Tang and Song dynasties is very popular, and some do not have to go to the person, He can Mingtie vote. Eastern Han Dynasty, known as the “thorn”, it is business cards, also known as “name thorn.” Ming Dynasty, many people posted in front of a red paper bag, specializing Mingtie, called “door book.”
New Year is a traditional Chinese folk custom, people toot, another way to express good wishes.Ancient “New Year” is the original meaning of the New Year for the elderly Baihe, including kowtowing to the elderly salute, Happy New Year wishful, greetings and so on living well. In case of peer friends, but also salute congratulations.
In ancient times, Tang Huo Square neighborhood friends too difficult to door visited, with a business card on the servant sent to the New Year, known as the “flying post”, each bag in front of a red paste, write “Blessings” word, that is used for the bearing of flying posts. This custom began in the Song upper class. Qing Dynasty, “Yan units on order” to describe the Beijing New Year: “is the month also, the film fly, empty away.” Fashion. Large house special “door book” to record the guests and flyer between the door more than a virtual page book, “who went to the” four: a life Pai said the old man, living a hundred Square Lane; one reads more than the rich lords , live ingot Street; one reads your Promise adults, living scholar archway; one said Fu Zhao Lin lords, living Wufu floor.Geely plans to discuss with the mouth color. The New Year has presented New Year’s card, greeting cards, is to send each other flying posts of this ancient legacy.
Useful upper literati Mingtie He cast another customs. Zhou Hui Song, “Shiba magazine,” said: “Song Yuanyou years, New Year He Jie, often used on behalf of domestic servants who were stabbed to.” At that time the literati make friends widely, if the four-door New Year, both time-consuming, but also exhausting, so little to some close friends not in person, but sent the servant to take one kind of two-inch cut with a plum Jian Zhi wide, three inches long, marked with greeting people by name, address and congratulated the New Year on behalf of the discourse of the card to. Ye Ming people to vote instead of New Year. Ming Dynasty distinguished painter, poet Wen Zhengming in the “New Year” the poem describes: “Ye pass but does not seek to meet, were full of paper to shield toward the House; I cast in tandem with the number of paper, never too simple virtual world abhorred.” Here talks about “name thorn” and “name Ye” is the origin of today’s greeting cards. Greeting cards and greeted each other for emotional contact, convenient and practical, and even today is still popular is not bad.
From about the time the Qing Dynasty, the New Year have added “gathering” in the form of the Qing Dynasty in Yi-lan primary “side of the cap over Tan” said: “The capital in the beginning of the year, routine gathering, a joint-year friendship, to don his homeland,” “Every age set by the value off in the red book, eating dinner, for Jingri joy.”
With the development of the times, New Year’s customs are constantly adding new content and form.In addition to follow the past is now New Year approaches, the rise of the New Year’s telegraph and telephone etiquette New Year and so on.
But the first day to fifth day, most families are not receiving women, that the “avoid the door.” Only man to go out New Year’s, women are required to go until the first month after the sixth day visit.New Year’s activities should be extended for a long time, to the fifteenth day of the Festival of Lights around. New Year’s evening to the people called “worship Night Festival”, named after the tenth day “thanks to the Festival of Lights”, so there are “determined to New Year, Cold Food is not late,” the joke.
If for any reason less than routine rituals, in the future make up the line, that the “worship in his later years.”
Old people are beginning to enter the new few days to account for weather confront harvest this year.Said Han Dongfang Shuo began its “Year of account”, that after the age of 8, the day is chicken day, two day dog, three days for the pigs, 4 sheep, five days for the cow six days for the horse, seven great men, 8 for the Valley. If the day is clear, the main thing is the breeding, overcast day, the day of the Lord is not chang. Descendants along its learning, that first day to the tenth day, begin with clear weather, no wind, no snow for the guitar. Offspring from the accounting year-old into a series of ritual, celebration. Have started not kill a chicken, do not kill a dog two days, three days … … the seventh day is not a feminist is not the custom of execution.
Spring in the doors and windows painted on ancient chicken to drive evil ghosts. Jin dynasty people with the “mysterious in the mind ‘in talking about the moon in front of the mountain comes to the degree only Chicken, that is when the sun just rising, the first rays of sunlight shine on the trees that line when you cry Chicken Ming had. It is a cry, the world’s chicken is called to follow up. Spring chicken cut so that, in fact, a symbol of Chicken Little. However, there is the ancient myth that chicken is a bird heavy deformation argument. It is said that Yao Di, the side of the allies had one kind of tribute to ward off evil Shigeaki birds, we all welcome the emphasis that the birds come, but not every year tribute to the people on the heavy wooden carved out a bird, or copper Shigeaki Bird on the door, or doors and windows painted Shigeaki birds, scare away demons, so can not come back. Similar by Shigeaki bird-like chicken, the chicken after it has gradually changed to draw or cut window bars attached to the doors and windows, that later became a source of paper-cut art. Special attention to ancient China chicken, call it “Five Virtues of the birds.” ”Hanshiwaizhuan’s Disconnection,” said its head a crown, is Bonaventure; feet away from the can after the fight, is Takenori; enemy front Ganpin, is fortitude; greeted with similar food, is benevolence; vigil yet When dawn crowing, is faith. So people do not cut the chicken in the New Year, but also the first day of New Year’s Day as a chicken.
Enrichment, vulgar mass first day as a broom birthday, this day can not use a broom, otherwise it will sweep away the luck, or even bankruptcy, while the “Sao Zhouxing” lead, lead to bad luck. If sweeping is not necessarily required to sweep from the outside to inside. This day can not be splashing out the trash, so afraid of bankruptcy. Today, many places still preserved a custom, Danian Ye swept away, New Year’s Day no broom, no trash, prepare a bucket to water containing the day nothing more than throwing.
Two days of festival in the first month in northern Fortuna, this day whether it is commercial shop, or the ordinary family, festival to be held in the God of Wealth activities. New Year’s Eve each connected to the worship of some god of wealth.Actually bought into the rough print incineration trouble. That day at noon to eat ravioli, commonly known as “ingot soup.” Sacrificial offerings with fish and lamb. Old Beijing’s big firms, both large-scale festival this day, offerings use the “five for”, that the whole pig, a whole sheep, whole chickens, whole ducks, red carp live, hope this year to making a fortune. Who is saying about the God of Wealth is not uniform, mainly in the following categories:
Zhao Gongming, was ordered by his Heavenly Master Zhang Shou Xuan Tan, also known as Zhao Xuan Tan. This person comes from the “Gods”, a late-bloomer to him as “wishful dragon is a dragon Xuantan Zhenjun God.” Zhao clear, the word the New Komeito, the Taoist god of basalt, commonly known as Zhao AD division. This said, comes from the “three religions of God found Daquan”, all the holy name is called: “the mains honest one Yuan Zhao Xuan Tan Tiger Wheel enforcement division.”
Fan Li: Spring and Autumn Period Goujian hands of the Minister, to help defeat Yue Wu, and later made a fortune in business, renamed Tao Zhu. Descendants regarded as the God of Wealth.
Guan Yu: Three of Guan Yu is a “round” characters, the most important duty, and descendants of the “righteousness” and “profit” equal treatment, regarded as the God of Wealth. Mostly dedicated to Guan Yu, who is generally firm, that he has a protective effect on firms.
The God of Wealth
Most of the people to Zhao Gongming mostly for its printed image is very powerful, black-faced thick beard, a consistent top helmet, hands Zhibian, painted around the pot of gold, large ingots, coral-like patterns, to be set off, you highlight the Furama the effect.
Goalkeeper burning paper, when the old temple day and night to New Year period of pine branches and sections of the memo and other door hanging door god be incinerated in order to show complete years have passed, but also began to make a living. Proverbs are “burning the keeper of paper, look for physical individuals.”
Small in North Korea, the feast day. Song court holiday, the first year of Emperor Song Dazhong Xiangfu, declined due to human transmission with hieroglyphics, Shinshu under the edict, will flood the temple feast on for days, officials and other leave days. Later in the DPRK, said small, not sweep the floor, not begging the fire, do not draw water, and towards the same age.
Fifth day of first month, commonly known as break five. Folk one that broke many taboos over the previous five days Jieke broken. According to the old habit of eating “water dumplings” 5, North called “boiled cake.” Today, some people eat three or two days, some every other day to eat, but do not not eat. Princes street from the mansion to the case of small farmers are
Therefore, every New Year, people are fifth day 0:00 in the first month, opened the door and windows burning incense set off fire crackers, fireworks, point to welcome the God of Wealth. Took the God of Wealth, you have to eat the way the first wine, tend to eat the morning. Full of rich people’s hope, I hope God of Wealth can bring home gold and silver, in the new year, big fat rich.
Road head Wu believed in God is a God of Wealth. Vulgar Yishi day for his birthday, offering to meet the sun, is quite spectacular.
Customs that access road head, the sooner the better, God is first received, particularly efficacious, so called “stolen road head.” In some places, it is really the fourth day of the Mongol “rush rush road head” of, and bent along into the vulgar. Since the way of God is no longer the protector of Streams, people will no longer travel time to go to worship in it.
As for the way people worship in the fifth day of January, the first God, and thus on their birthday, is in God’s Rd “five” and the fifth day of the “Five” involved with the rules. North Festival this day “five poor” as well. In the first month than other months, is taken from the New Year new atmosphere, auspicious year plans, financial resources lush, East and West, and thus wealth Rd.
Fifth day of the first month “to send the poor”, is a useful feature of China’s ancient folk customs of the age. On this day each woman made of paper, known as “sweeping clear mother”, “five poor women” and “five poor mother”, toting bags, sweep the house dirt bag, sending artillery bombing of the fuel door. This custom is also known as “send the poor soil,” “poor wife to send out.” Shaanxi area, avoid breaking five day out, and fresh meat to the pot on the grill, but also stir Madou, so that it cracked voice, that this gas can collapse in addition to the poor, and seek fortune. In addition, the old New Year’s Eve or the fifth day of the first month to eat special bread, commonly known as “poor hole fill.” Wide range of popular folk custom of sending poor, reflecting the general desire of our people New Year, bid farewell to old of poverty, new year’s tradition of psychological good life.
Head Road, also known as “Five Roads God.” He said there is a Yuan Dynasty Rd, to resist Waikou died, so that people worship him as God, the name “Five Roads God.” However, this seems Rd God as the God of Wealth God not involved the way the first Rd. Or Youyi Rd God the Holy Spirit is actually five, or say five speaks, in the reign of Emperor Kangxi Tang Bin ban destroyed the top of Temple Mount after the five-pass, not worship five people speaks, it changed its name and the worship of the first road . General as head of the ancient Wu Si Road, in the line of God, the so-called East and West Rd is also; wealth and goods by road with all the line, so people of God as the God of Wealth to the line, would like to add worship, seeking it cited financial entry, or travel profit.
Ancient Old customs during the Spring Festival since the size of shops closed from New Year’s Day, and in the first month, fifth day of the opening. Fifth day of the month for the fiscal secular holy day, that will choose this day opened Fortune.
Sixth month “to send the poor”
Sixth month “to send the poor”, is a useful feature of China’s ancient folk customs of the age. Its meaning is offering to send beast (Qiongshen). Beast, also known as “the poor child.” According to Chen Yuan Liang Song “at the age of Hiroki” drawing “Zong prepared to ask,” reads: “Zhuanxu digoxin, the palace a son, could not finish coat, the palace known as the poor child and subsequently the first month dark death, burial palace of, with that said ‘today sent the poor child.’ “legend beast is Zhuanxu Son. His weak little body, likes to wear rags, porridge. Even if the new clothes for him, he also torn or after the fire out of its hole to wear, so “the poor child number palace.”
The custom of sending the poor quite popular in the Tang Dynasty, Han Yu, a great writer once wrote, “to send the poor Man,” which stated: “(master) three divisions of the military’s beast and said: ‘heard a Japanese sub-line men, and I There are resources to send grace, children and other interested in the line of peace ‘? “Yao Tang Dynasty also wrote a poem” Misoka send poor three, “the first song which goes: every year to this day, thanks to Street Lek wine. Ten thousand one thousand of view, no do not send poor. Widespread folk custom of sending poor, reflecting the general desire of our people New Year, bid farewell to old of poverty, new year’s tradition of psychological good life.
Man-days known as “Man wins Festival”, “human feasts”, “Population Day”, “seven people” and so on. Legend of Nu Wa initial creation, create a Jigou in pork, beef, horses and other animals, after the seventh day create a person, so this day is the birthday of human beings. Han dynasty folk festival was on, after paying attention to Wei. Ancient man-days are wearing “who wins” the customs, who wins is a headdress, known as color wins, Huasheng, from the Jin dynasty began to cut the ribbon for the flowers, cut the ribbon man, or man to engrave gold paste screen, also worn on the the hair.There is also the custom of climbing poetry. After the Tang Dynasty, more attention to this festival.Each condemns day, the emperor gave the ministers who wins thread color, and climb banquet ministers. If the first month, seventh day the weather clear, the main population of peace for one year, and out smoothly.
Valley Day, the birthday of the legendary eighth day of the millet. That day the weather clear, the main rice harvest this day, the day was overcast then apologized.
ninth month is the highest god of heaven Jade Emperor’s birthday, commonly known as “Lord of Heaven,” “Jade will be.” Taoism called “Yuanshi Senior” is to dominate the universe’s highest God, he is commanding the ten realms of human spirits, gods and the highest God, the supreme representative of the “day.” Rumors of the deities in heaven, on this day to be a grand celebration, the birthday of the Jade Emperor in the afternoon return back to Luan Temple.
His birthday, it will hold ceremonies to the table to celebrate, to worship God in the ceremony, very grand, starting from midnight until four o’clock that day, you can constantly hear the sound of firecrackers.
Stone birthday, the day where grinding, milling and other stone tools could not move, and even set up offering Xiangsi
In the southern area of folklore, that mouse is harmful, inauspicious, so the lunar New Year’s Eve night to have it married, to ensure safe good luck next year. Shanghai suburbs in some places that married female rats in Sixteenth day, that night, every household fried sesame candy is ready to get married candy mice.
In the north, married female mice 25 in the first month of the evening. In this night, not every household lighting, the whole family sitting on white picket fence, quietly, but the dark eating flour made of “rat claw claw”, “scorpion tail” and fried beans. Do not light up, do not say anything mean to marry female mice provide a convenient, married for fear of disturb the happy event. Eat “rat claw claw,” said the rat paw itching expected, good up earlier action; eat “scorpion tail” that is to marry a female rat hole will not hurt by the scorpion. Fried soybean issued Ga bang Cui Xiang, seems to be married to rats firecrackers.
Married women in rats at night, Hunan Zixing area in the corner, hallway Biancha candles, meaning
Lantern Festival is China’s major traditional festivals, also known as Lantern Festival, per night, also known as the Lantern Festival, the New Year because it is the first full moon night. Yin ancient customs of this festival have lanterns, it is also known as the Festival of Lights. Lantern Festival vulgar form a longer process, according to the general information and folk legend, the fifteenth day has been taken seriously in the Western Han Dynasty, Emperor Wu of Han Xin the first month on Temple worship night at the Oasis “too a” campaign, by later generations as for the fifteenth day worship the gods of the precursor. However, the fifteenth day as a real folk festival in the Han later.Han culture, the introduction of Buddhism, for the formation of the Lantern Festival has an important impetus vulgar meaning.
Yongping Han Emperor Ming period (AD 58–75), to promote Buddhism by Emperor Ming, Cai Daniel coincides with Buddhism from India to seek return of, say India’s Mount Tuo country drink every fifteenth day, the monks gathered to pay tribute to Buddha relic, is the parameter Buddha’s auspicious really good time. Han Emperor Ming to promote Buddhism, ordered the fifteenth night in the palace and temple, “Lotus Lantern Table Buddha.” Hence the custom of fifteenth Enlightening night with the expansion of cultural influence of Buddhism and Taoism in China to join gradually expand. The Lantern Festival is vulgar because it is the real driving force at the new point in time, people take advantage of this special time of life stage to express their wishes.
Lantern Festival lights up the custom, unprecedented in the Tang Dynasty to become the city of lights, the Tang Dynasty, has developed into a universal carnival. Xuanzong (AD 685–762) when the Kaiyuan prosperity, Chang’an city of the size of a large lamp, Enlightening fifty thousand, lantern variety, the emperor ordered to do huge floor lamps, Quanta 20, 150 feet high, golden bright, very spectacular.
After continuous development history of the Lantern Festival, the Festival of Lights of longer and longer. Tang Dynasty Lantern Festival is “the day before Spring” Song also added in the sixteenth after two days, then extended to the Ming Dynasty by the eighth day of the eighteenth full ten days.
To the Qing Dynasty, the Manchu Central Plains, the court will not do lantern, folk lantern is still spectacular. Date reduced to five days, continues today.
“Riddles,” also known as “playing riddles” is an activity increased after the Lantern Festival, in Song Dynasty. Southern Song Dynasty, the capital Lin’an during the Lantern Festival, when the system fans, many people guessing. Began as Nosey the riddle written on a piece of paper, attached to the bright lights of the lanterns for persons guess. Because the riddle can inspire wisdom and interest, so the spreading process was welcomed by all sectors of society.
Tang and Song Dynasties, when light began to appear all kinds of circus skills Shangwang. Ming and Qing dynasties light Shangwang addition to riddles and 100 opera singing and dancing, it had also added the contents of the opera.
Ancient people in addition to travel outside the city lights, there are welcome Zigu festival toilet God, walking across the bridge touch nail diseases such as customs, have hit the peace drum, Yangko, stilts, dragon, lion and other game. At the same time, but also eat festive food: Northern and Southern Dynasties and the Lantern Festival to eat meat and animals with the Congee or rice boiled oil, the Tang Dynasty to eat something called “surface cocoon” of pasta and coke Shi chase (ie, scones) , the Song of salt and soy bean flour soup made subjects fighting soup, and a “maroon”, eat after the Lantern Festival Lantern of the North and South are learning.
During the lantern festival, young men and women meet with the timing lover, so the Lantern Festival has become China’s “Valentine’s Day.”
Lantern Festival is a traditional rural society, a large emphasis on folk festival, the Lantern Festival in the bustling city is particularly strong, it reflects the unique carnival spirit of the Chinese people. The traditional Lantern Festival hosted by the customs of daily life function has been digested, people gradually lose the spirit of common interest, complex folk festival has been reduced to “eat the Lantern,” the Sisu.
Send baby light referred to as “send light”, also known as “flowers Light”, etc., that is, before the Lantern Festival, her parents marry off their daughters at home to the new light flowers, wedding gift or general infertile relatives home, in order to add Dingji Zhao, because ” Light “and” D “harmonics.The custom in many places, Xi’an area is sent during the first month to fifteen eighth day lights, large lanterns first year to send a pair of glass lamps are painting a pair hope that their daughter married to come, Lin Early child; such as pregnant daughter, then in addition to large lanterns, but also get twelve pairs of small lanterns, and wished her daughter safe during pregnancy.
Ying Zi Gu, Zi Gu also called Qi (g) Regardless, the North said the toilet more than Regardless, pit Sangu. Fifteenth day of the ancient folk customs to meet God Zigu Erji toilet, divination sericulture, and accounting for public thing. The legend Zigu concubine for the people, for large women are jealous, the fifteenth day of the cubicle was killed, a toilet of God, so people mostly women made Zigu of shape, and meet at night in the toilet room and worship of the pigsty . The popular custom throughout North and South, Southern and Northern Dynasties era found in early records.
Travel sickness, also known as diseases go, casual sickness, take the bridge, is a good of prayer healthy activities. Women Meet the Lantern Festival night travel, go hand in hand, will see over the bridge, thought that it would illnesses and sickness.
Popular area of Guizhou Province, Huang Ping, Miao festival stealing food in the annual Lunar New Year is held. Festival this day, the girls would steal someone’s home in groups of food, non-stealing the family, same-sex friends can not steal, because stealing Knight’s love affair with them on. His food is limited by the cabbage, the number of people eating a meal can be enough. Not afraid to steal food was found to be copies of the others is not to blame. Discovery to the food we put together, do the cabbage dinner. Who is said to eat up, who was loved back, while most of the strong support of the silkworm, the silk is the best spit up.
2014 is the Year of the Green Horse, which falls on Jan. 31 on the lunar calendar. A lucky year, according to the Chinese. The Year of the Horse kicks out the Year of the Snake — not a good year considering all the turmoil, conflicts and tragedies in the world.
Horse people may be a little untamed, but they are supposed to be popular, cheerful, talented, independent and skillful with their money. Don’t forget that a horse shoe is a sign of good luck for Westerners.
You are a horse if you were born in 1930, 1942, 1954, 1966, 1978, 1990, 2002 and, of course, in 2014 on or after Jan. 31. The Chinese zodiac runs a 12-year cycle with each year symbolized by an animal. Besides the exiting snake and the horse galloping toward you, the others are sheep, monkey, rooster, dog, pig, rat, ox, tiger, rabbit and dragon.
By the way, horse is pronounced “ma” in Chinese. Among famous horse people are Billy Graham, Nelson Mandela, Angela Merkel, Clint Eastwood, Teddy Roosevelt, Chopin and Rembrandt.
Johnny Lin, chef at Asian Gourmet in Gurnee, and his wife, Anne Chen, manager at the restaurant, both are horse people.
Asked how it feels to be a horse, he said, “We work hard like horses and oxen.”
The Chinese New Year is celebrated not only in China but in most East Asia. With China growing in wealth and influence, anyone doing business with the Chinese probably have learned to say “Xin nian kuai le,” Happy New Year, and “Gong xi fa cai,” May you be prosperous.
In China, the New Year is celebrated as a holiday from three to 15 days, depending where one works. The private sector is more liberal by giving employees a longer holiday. Unlike in the United States where stores offer big sales during a holiday, in China, stores generally are closed for three days during the new year, called the Spring Festival, to allow employees to go home for family reunions. Railroad stations, bus terminals and airports are invariably jammed with travelers carrying gifts for home.
The Chinese New Year celebration revolves around serious eating, often accompanied by drinking. It is not unusual to see 10 to 12 dishes at a family reunion table.
Firecrackers will explode during the holiday, especially at night, to rid evil spirits. As experienced by this writer and his wife, who spent New Year in Nanjing in eastern China last year, firecrackers exploded throughout the night. There was no use complaining because no one wanted to spoil the fun, much less challenge the age-old tradition.
The 15th day of the New Year is the Lantern Festival when kids play with paper mache lanterns, which come in shapes like lotus, rabbit, tiger and dragon. No one in China will pass the day without eating dumplings. It’s an irresistibly delicious tradition.
Chinese Zodiac horse represents energy, intelligence and ability
Two substantial port investments have been announced recently by Ghana and Nigeria: the awarding of contracts worth US$2.5bn to double Ghana’s port capacity by 2018 and the approval of Nigeria’s first deep-sea port at Lekki, which will take around four years to complete at an estimated cost of US$1.35bn. These announcements are indicative of the competition between West Africa’s ports, all of which are seeking to become the primary gateway to the region. However, it is the more western ports of Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire) and Dakar (Senegal) that are proving most successful in attracting transit traffic.
West Africa’s proliferation of competing ports—six ports in the region handle more than 300,000 containers a year—is attributable to the concentration of economic activity along the coast. Although this competition encourages investment, it has also split it: West Africa has more projects than any other region (16) under the African Development Bank’s Program for Infrastructure Development in Africa, but they have a lower total value (US$6.2bn) than any other region bar North Africa.
A 2011 study by the African Infrastructure Country Diagnostic (AICD, a group led by the African Development Bank) showed that the region’s ports, together with those of Central Africa, had the highest average dwell time, truck processing time and container cargo handling charges on the continent. Fragmentation means that the region lacks a single efficient hub. Furthermore, although West Africa has the potential to be one of the world’s fastest-growing regions in the coming years, gridlocked ports represent a major threat to economic expansion.
While Tema in Ghana and Lagos in Nigeria may be the two largest hubs in terms of current traffic and proposed investment, others are making efforts to close the gap. This year Guinea signed a deal with Mubadala Development and Dubai Aluminium to develop port facilities in Kamsar, as part of a US$5bn investment. Elsewhere, a consortium consisting of APM Terminals, Bolloré Africa Logistics and Bouygues was chosen by Abidjan Port Authority to build and manage a second container terminal, with plans to invest more than €450m (US$585m) over the 21‑year concession period, and the International Finance Corporation, the private-sector funding arm of the World Bank, arranged a €225m debt package for Lomé Container Terminal, representing Togo’s largest-ever direct foreign investment. In November alone, The Gambia announced plans to construct an inland port at Kuar; the Liberian presidential delegation to the UAE and Kuwait made ports and infrastructure a focal point of its trip; and the Sierra Leone Ports Authority reiterated its openness to partnerships and investment.
As the landlocked economies in the region grow—Burkina Faso and Niger are among West Africa’s fastest-growing economies—more attention will be paid to inland transportation. Progress in intra-regional tariff liberalization and the lowering of non-tariff barriers has led to increases in transit traffic, enjoyed predominantly by the western ports of Abidjan (a 126% increase in transit traffic volumes between 2008 and 2012) and Dakar (a 125% increase). These increases have been at the expense of ports further east, such as Ghana’s Tema, which experienced a 43% decrease over the same period.
Inland infrastructure developments will further this trend. A railway connecting Niger and Burkina Faso with Cote d’Ivoire, due to begin construction next year, will help Abidjan to increase its share of transit traffic. Road transportation, which accounts for 90% of inland transportation in West Africa, is expensive because of an oligopoly of trucking companies that enjoys profit margins of 30-40%: rail transportation in the Abidjan-Ouagdougou corridor is already 30% cheaper on average than road transportation. Niger and Benin are also planning to extend and rehabilitate the existing railway line between Cotonou and Niamey; Niger wants the work completed by 2015, although that is optimistic.
The rise of piracy in the Gulf of Guinea—there were 67 attacks in the first half of 2013, compared with 34 in the same period of 2012—will also push port traffic westwards. These attacks have a substantial impact on shipping: when 22 attacks occurred off the coast of Benin in 2011, the subsequent categorization of Beninese waters as “high risk” by insurance companies—a category that already includes Nigeria and Togo—led to a 70% decrease in port traffic, according to a report by the UN Office on Drugs and Crime.
Although there have been three attacks off Côte d’Ivoire this year, one off Sierra Leone and one off Guinea, the overwhelming majority of incidents occur east of Ghana, at an estimated cost of US$740-950m in 2012. This challenge is unlikely to be solved as effectively as it has been in the Gulf of Aden: the required regional co‑operation is likely to be hampered by the same bureaucratic challenges that have affected other regional efforts in the past, and the necessity of vessels to queue for port access—rather than passing through the waters off Somalia—makes them vulnerable.
Investments in the port infrastructure of Ghana and Nigeria will help them to ease congestion and more effectively serve their growing economies. As the two largest economies in in the region, their domestic markets alone could ensure their position as the largest ports in the Gulf of Guinea. However, without accompanying efforts to improve inland transportation corridors and combat piracy, it is unlikely that either will become a dominant transit hub for the wider region. Instead, transit traffic will increasingly move westward. Abidjan and Dakar, which are already the two largest ports west of Ghana (handling 18m tons and 113m tons of cargo respectively in 2011), stand to gain the most from this shift.
I told her to travel. Hands down. No excuse. Just go.
Yeah, but… what about debt?
Yeah, but… what about my job?
Yeah, but… what about my boyfriend (or dog or car or whatever)?
“Yeah, but…” is pernicious. Because it makes it sound like we have the best of intentions when really we are just too scared to do what we should.
It allows us to be cowards, while sounding noble.
Most people I know who waited to travel the world never did. Conversely, plenty of people who waited for grad school or a steady job and traveled still did those things — eventually.
Be careful of the yeah-but. The yeah-but will kill your dreams.
I was so stirred by this conversation that I shared it with a group of about thirty young adults last night, many who were asking these very questions.
When you get older, life seems to just sort of happen to you. Your youth is a time of total empowerment.
You get to do what you want. As you mature and gain new responsibilities, you have to be very intentional about making sure you don’t lose sight of what’s important.
So if you still have a reasonable amount of control over your circumstances, you should do what really matters. Because life won’t always be just about you.
During early adulthood, your worldview is still being formed. It’s important to steward this time — to give yourself opportunities to grow. A good way to do that is to travel.
So, young person, travel.
Travel wide and far.
Travel with full abandon.
You will regret few risks you take, when it comes to this.
I promise you.
When you look back on your life, you will have moments of which you are proud and maybe a few you regret. It’s likely that the following won’t be on the latter list:
They’re not on mine ….. (fun fact: I’ve already done all of the above).
What, then, will be your excuse to NOT live a full life? Why are you…..
You should take the time to see the world and taste the fullness of life. It’s worth whatever investment or money or sacrifice of time required on your part.
It’s not about being a tourist. It’s about experiencing true risk and adventure so you don’t have to live in fear for the rest of your life.
In your youth, you will make choices that will define you. The disciplines you begin now will be with you for the rest of your life.
Traveling will change you like little else can. It will put you in places that will force you to care for issues that are bigger than you.
If you go to southeast Asia, you may encounter the slave trade. If eastern Europe, you may see the effects of genocide and religious persecution. If Haiti, you’ll witness the the ugly side Western paternalism.
Your heart will break.
You will begin to understand that the world is both a big and small place. You will have a new-found respect for the pain and suffering that over half of the world takes for granted on a daily basis. And you will feel more connected to your fellow human beings in a deep and lasting way.
You will learn to care.
While you’re still young, you should get cultured. Get to know the world and the magnificent people that fill it.
There’s nothing quite like walking alongside the Coliseum or seeing Michelangelo’s David in person. I can describe the city of San Juan and its amazing beaches and historic sites to you, but you really have to see it for yourself to experience it. You can read all the books in the world about the Great Wall of China or The Louvre, but being there is a different story.
The world is a stunning place, full of outstanding works of art. See it.
Do this while you’re still young. Do not squander this time. You will never have it again.
You have a crucial opportunity to invest in the next season of your life now. Whatever you sow, you will eventually reap. Please. For your sake, do this.
You won’t always be young. And life won’t always be just about you. So travel. Experience the world for all it’s worth. Become a person of culture, adventure, and compassion.
Travel, anyway. It may not be easy to do, but find a way to get out of your comfort zone. It’s really never too late.
But if you haven’t gotten sucked into the routine of life yet, I implore you — travel. It will never be easier than it is right now for you to do that which really matters.
There is a problem for all of the auto manufactures of Natural Gas and or Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles seeking to bring them into mass production face today:
It is the lack of fueling stations and those stations reluctance to install equipment ( what many would call a chicken and egg issue)…. who will go first…. so far the answer is neither although a few “prototypes” have been made.
HOWEVER this conundrum is based on what has been the “traditional” way of doing fueling and a lack of vision in solving issues that appear to have no solutions. … such common practice is called a paradigm. Some have suggested a more radical approach to refueling that currently being “home fueling”. The best current example of that is of Electric vehicles … just plug them into your own electric at home. There are several issues which have made the Auto Industry’s tepid introduction into this method more anemic than they would like to have us believe.
First and foremost 70% of the potential owners of most passenger vehicles do not have parking close to an electrical supply or electrical outlet that can deliver the electricity needed. than there is the cost of an electrician to bring a 220 line to your garage or driveway to make that connection.
The second is the range is only 100 miles for all-electric vehicles on a good day. that takes the 30% that might be interested and cuts it 90% so that only 3% of all new vehicle purchases would actually buy an all-electric vehicle.
Remember the word I used above? A “Paradigm”. How things have traditionally been done…. obviously we have seen many advances in technology where shifting the Paradigm.. from types of cell phones to the changes in computers and the cutting of wires making everything from TV’s to Computers to printers and gaming all wireless… all of these have been gradual change.. and will continue to take place.
For the Automotive industry to make radical paradigm changes on the second most expensive thing most people will ever buy was just bad marketing mentality. People need a gradual change and one that does not involve additional work or expenses or equipment to make their expensive purchase function on this new world they are trying to sell us… Their hearts are in the right place… this change away from gasoline and diesel for running Automobiles must take place for a whole range of reasons. but HOW they are going about it will only delay the success and cause financial hardships for most of these companies.
The above thus reflects why hybrids are the most popular of electrical vehicles.
I started in this project almost 15 years ago.. from attempting to buy Citgo.. not for the refining but for their service stations… but for reasons of bad partnerships that were more interested in short-term gains on an actual oil buy/sell agreement with Venezuela that fell apart because of others greed. The hardest part of changing a paradigm is getting people to believe in it… and so I toiled watching Conaco and others shed themselves of the fueling stations that I wanted to transform… and knowing that the new independent companies would not invest in something new that would cost a lot for minimal returns sometimes in the future when these vehicles became popular… NO, my dream of using those fueling stations and having expensive pumping facilities in each one died a painful death… but I did not give up…
I came to realize that if this was going to be successful I would need to keep the “paradigm” of individual habits of the consumers of the fuels mostly in place… Later in this article I will give you my synopsis of where I believe this change in fuels can succeed and why.
But let me get back to the Alternative fuels and away now from Electric…. what about Natural gas… or for that matter Hydrogen? Can they work.. and if so HOW?
Lets start with Hydrogen. Does anyone remember about 10 years ago when the then Governor of California Arnold Schwarzenegger tried to promote them by placing a few filling station along a highway in hopes of getting California into the forefront… well that failed unfortunately as the demand for vehicles without many more filling stations and the lack of demand for the cars made their price too high. This effort well-intentioned but unfortunately poorly planned.
While Hydrogen fueling pumps could be placed in many Fueling Stations there is the infrastructure required to bring that hydrogen to each station as well as the high cost of storage and pumping equipment which no one wants to do if there are not enough customers.
The same can be said of Natural gas. While there are many ‘Homes” that “Could” refill their own with the proper but costly equipment and like those with Electric connectivity there are a smaller amount that would have natural gas close enough to where they park their vehicles at their homes to utilize this .. here the reliance on the traditional method of fueling and use of fueling stations (again… a paradigm) is in dead lock.. something I believe I have found a way to unblock and provide fueling of BOTH Hydrogen and Natural gas to vehicles.. but not in the traditions fueling pump found at fueling stations.
Why can’t Natural Gas be provided in existing fueling stations? Well, there are two problems. Natural gas only flows through the pipelines at 60 PSI… this would bean additional investment for the now independent Fueling (gas) Stations. One to store large quantities of natural gas as it would not flow fast enough into your vehicle and second an investment in to the compressing equipment to make the gas flow faster into your vehicle.
So these are the real problems facing the automotive industry.. it holds back innovation and stifles the change to the use of Natural gas and or Hydrogen fuel cells. .
A quick note on Hydrogen fuel cells:
Some people are under the misconception that all they need is tap water to get hydrogen. FALSE! most tape water or well water had other things in it that would clog up your personal hydrogen generator unless you filtered out the water to a degree that the cost of doing it individually would become prohibited. While Exxon is working on an on-board hydrogen generator it is still years off and it is unknown if it would get the hydrogen from natural gas or water via a specialized system. IF they chose natural gas than this project fits well in their plans.. if not this project could be used to provide containerized filtered water for use in that generator.
Before I get into the proposed solution I want to pay a quick tribute to other innovators and inventors out there that have had to deal with the inane nature of huge bureaucracies like I have. GM for example has a website for ideas submissions… but I loved it (sarcasm) when they wanted an “elevator” pitch in 1000 characters or less…. such a condensing of information was just NOT possible when it came to problem identification and proposed solutions. The larger the company the less truly innovative it is especially if the suggestions do not come from “Their” industry… this “halo” effect is what ultimately causes major companies to fall from grace and become antiquated.
I have devised a container that is light weight (grandmother can lift it) and can hold either Natural gas or Hydrogen at 25,000 PSI and is safe for vehicles.
Additionally such pressure needed a specialized Nozzle that allows filling and controlled release at low quantities as needed.
BOTH of these components are patent ready and as such their material composition and design are not being released.
The containers are designed for easy exchange in less than 2 minutes and all have RF chips for tracking at the manufacturing, distribution and filling locations.
These containers can be refilled at roughly 500 locations around the USA and from there they can be placed in over 100,000 “fueling Stations” in less than 2 years.
I have the distribution network of 500 refilling depots and they can be fully operational within 6 months at all locations.
Believe it is possible to fix the rate of Natural Gas for the Canisters for 5 years.
The change in the paradigm is ONLY the opening of the slot on the vehicle and take out the old canister and insert the new one such that existing fueling stations can still be utilized and no special equipment is necessary for the filling station (except for the rack) nor the vehicle owner making the paradigm shift that much easier on the ultimate consumer.
My advantage is not just in the design of the canisters but in the extensive distribution network. A generous tax incentive is expected despite the divide in congress because of the benefits to the strategic partners. This is a win for every participant from manufactures and owners to gas companies and employment.. but I don’t have to prove that… all you have to do is have eyes to see and a brain to contemplate the financial and stockholder benefits such a comprehensive plan could be for the companies that take advantage first.
A business plan and list of potential strategic Partners to facilitate the program for mutual benefit but no capital is necessary to establish this program unless principals want to participate in revenue streams over time and that is open for discussion obviously.
So this is the story of nearly 15 years of labor and though process and trying to figure out what would be good for everyone.. and yes I am included in that.. but there is no other reasonable and implementable program than this that i have been able to see. One with the least cost to everyone and the least risk and yet the maximum financial benefits. I hope it one day gets picked up… I am not going to go after anyone else before Christmas as I did submit to GM.. but in 2014 I will make a much harder approach to others in the industry.. and hope ti finds a home.
To find out more about Craig Eisele follow the link on the top right hand corner of the page above this article titled “About Craig Eisele”.
And always remember:
Keep this in mind when you are reading this article from Motley Fool:
BUT I PERSONALLY KNOW :
Auto makers will not make huge numbers if there is no infrastructure to fill every town and no self-respecting gas station owner or operator would invest in the required pumping equipment and logistically the normal pipelines are 60 psi so it would take some time to refill IF you could get natural gas to your location… but what has surprised me more is the failure of everyone in the automotive industry and even in some in the gas industry that there is a very new and complete proprietary system to facilitate the immediate roll out of a structure that would be available in over 100,000 + locations around the USA within 2 years and with sufficient low-cost natural gas to supply more than 10 million passenger vehicles with natural gas in less than 2 years.. but it seems nobody wants to admit or even to acknowledge there is such a strategic business plan that has been shopped to the powers to be with absolutely no response… The only reason I can figure is that these powers are too arrogant to realize that a separate infrastructure unaffiliated with automotive or oil companies or even filling stations can make this entire thing happen. (1 GGE is 126 cuft Natural gas and this system can handle a 12-16 GGE refill in about 3-4 minutes) (GGE is Gallon of Gasoline Equivalent ) and yes, your great-grandmother can do it. And my real secret it can be used to distribute Hydrogen for Fuel Cell Vehicles as well and just as fast.
Just a year or two ago it appeared that the natural gas vehicle could begin competing with the conventional vehicle for consumers around the country. Natural gas was cheaper than gasoline, the fuel burns cleaner, and some of the infrastructure to make it a viable gasoline alternative was already being developed.
But car companies are now pushing electric and hydrogen vehicles far more than natural gas powered ones. So, what happened to natural gas vehicles, and do they have a future?
The trucking industry loves natural gas
There are companies growing natural gas fuel successfully. One business trying to do this is the trucking industry and Clean Energy Fuels (NASDAQ: CLNE ) , who builds fueling stations and other infrastructure, including the Natural Gas Highway, a network of fueling stations around the country. So far, the adoption is slow but it’s picking up steam. The company recently said its customers ordered 70% more fuel in the first nine months of this year than a year ago.
Westport Innovations (NASDAQ: WPRT ) is making the natural gas engine technology and components that drive this new trucking fleet and, again, progress is steady. Revenue was up 51% to $30.7 million last quarter and the company is working with Cummins, Volvo,Ford (NYSE: F ) , and others to expand vehicle offerings.
While there’s some success in the trucking market, it hasn’t turned into a lot of genuine interest from auto buyers, or even automakers for that matter. There are a number of challenges that natural gas autos face that electric or hydrogen vehicles don’t.
No appeal to tree huggers
One of the challenges selling people on natural gas is that it doesn’t appeal to your typical early-mover crowd. Hybrids in their early days appealed to the environmentally conscious type because they use fewer fossil fuels to power their cars. That same appeal powers electric-vehicle sales today; EVs can get energy via something like solar panels, thus eliminating all fossil fuel emissions. Someone with the disposable income available to buy an electric vehicle doesn’t see the same benefit being offered by natural gas.
Infrastructure isn’t widespread
The bigger challenge facing natural gas vehicles is that refueling stations aren’t widespread across the country. According to the U.S. Department of Energy, there are only 632 compressed natural gas stations and just 42 liquefied natural gas stations in the U.S. That compares to 6,883 electric charging stations for public use.
Thousands more natural gas fueling stations and additional compressed or liquefied natural gas plants would be needed to make this a viable fuel source. From an infrastructure standpoint, that puts natural gas well behind electric when it comes to ease of building infrastructure for vehicles.
Cost savings can’t save natural gas
I don’t question that natural gas fuel costs less than gasoline, which is the biggest selling point for natural gas vehicles. That’s the reason the trucking industry finds natural gas attractive and why Ford is trying to sell a natural gas F-150. But the infrastructure needed to make natural gas a viable option for the rest of us would cost billions of dollars.
When comparing the potential of natural gas with that of electric, the hurdles for EVs are far lower. At the end of the day, I don’t think natural gas will catch on beyond the trucking fleets.
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Statistics used badly to generate a case that could never have been made had an honest statistical analysis had been used. Such is the way of the internet today forced results of a flawed statistical study to validate a point that is not valid. Yet people read this nonsense and believe because it is on the internet. HOW SHALLOW and disruptive to any real discussion of facts and honest analysis of issues
The following is important not only to show outright fraud that has been disseminated around the glob in the proffered analysis and is hence dissected herein to also show how such fraud is perpetrated and how something that needs to be accurate can actually kill people if false information is believed.
Here is an Internet story was Julia Ioffe writing in The New Republic about her whooping-cough. As she points out, whooping-cough (also known as pertussis) had almost disappeared in the United States, but cases are on the rise. One reason speculated is that a growing number of Americans are refusing to vaccinate their children.
As expected by anyone who has ever seen vaccination discussed on the Internet, Ioffe’s comments section rapidly filled with anti-vaccine cranks. Some approach from the right, with claims of personal autonomy that trump even the libertarian night-watchman state’s power of quarantine. Others come from a narcissistic pseudo-Green belief that their Superman immune systems, fortified with expensive supplements, can take on all those pesky germs. How dare we ordinary people complain that in reality they are free-riding on our assuming the non-zero (albeit small) risks of vaccination! [Note: autism is not one of these risks.]
Either way the denialists have a major statistical problem: the near-eradication of several diseases in the course of vaccination campaigns. Flailing attempts to solve this problem include: Big Pharma has persuaded doctors to reclassify paralytic polio as something else; sanitation and hygiene improved; the disease rates were going down before vaccines; and people who are vaccinated still get sick (no one, of course, denied this).
No pseudo-scientific campaign is complete without pseudo-statistical nonsense, and in following the antivac links I encountered some real doozies. A few of them are generalizable to bad statistical reasoning in general, so for the details and maybe a good laugh, follow below the cronut.
1. Easy Warm-up — What’s wrong here?
Sorry about the poor jpeg, but if I made this mistake, I’d use a low-quality format too. This chart is supposed to show that polio incidence went up after vaccination.
This is strong evidence showing that the Polio vaccine is not responsible for the decline and should negate the belief and statement that the Polio vaccine demonstrates vaccine success. Below, see research that reflects what it stated above.
Now get out your magnifying glass. The chart shows the introduction of the vaccine against diphtheria and pertussis but the Y-axis measures the number of cases of polio! You would think someone would have noticed this before spreading the chart to three different slickly produced antivac web sites, with many links from Facebook and Twitter. In case you were wondering, the polio vaccine was introduced at just the time this chart ends, 1954 and 1955. And they end their chart because polio cases sink like a rock: from 36,000 in 1953 to under 200 in 1961.2. Missing Data Are Data They Don’t Want You To See
The anti-vacers pick the narrative back up in 1961. We shall see why the 1950s got disappeared.
In 1977, Dr Jonas Salk, who developed the first polio vaccine, testified along with other scientists that mass inoculation against polio was the cause of most polio cases throughout the USA since 1961 [Emphasis added].
Quite true! The Salk vaccine could cause polio; indeed one of the first batches was screwed up by the lab and caused ten deaths and much illness before being identified and withdrawn. But we’re talking about “most” of 100 cases, 10 cases, and in recent years no cases whatsoever. The author is trying to leave the false impression that it’s most of the tens of thousands of cases from the early 1950s. Here is the real picture.
3. A Little Bit of Data is a Dangerous Thing
Obviously, looking at that last graph, something happened around 1954. An alternative (in every sense) explanation is that doctors substituted diagnoses of aseptic meningitis for polio.Here’s their evidence (using the word loosely).
|Date||Viral or Aseptic Meningitis||Polio|
Oh, and these numbers are only Los Angeles County! Why do you suppose five months for just one county were cherry-picked out of years of data? Why does the Nigerian guy want your bank data? It’s a swindle: all you have to do is wait for a local outbreak of aseptic meningitis after 1955 from some cause other than polio, and presto, a data point. Unfortunately for this theory, recent data for viral meningitis in Los Angeles are online, and between 2008 and 2011 the largest number of cases in any month was 102, and the mean (average) less than 50, notwithstanding that the population increased by half. So what are they diagnosing polio as now? Chopped liver? Like most conspiracy theories, this one falls apart fast under scrutiny.
4. You Say Morbidity, I Say Mortality, Let’s Call the While Thing Off
Another frequently cited antivac web site explains “there is no credible scientific evidence that the vaccine caused polio to disappear.” This claim’s original source is a parenting book by eccentric pediatrician Dr. Robert Mendelsohn, who, despite the importance he gave to diet over medicine, died aged 62 from a heart attack complicated by diabetes. Pro-vaccine Dr. Spock lived to 94. For some reason, Dr. Mendelsohn did not accompany his statement that polio declined in European countries that did not vaccinate as fast those that did with any data or even a source citation. The web site, however, continues with this remarkable chart.
This is a chart of polio mortality, i.e., death rates, normalized to 1920=100%. This is a bait and switch: polio vaccination reduces morbidity, i.e., the number of cases. Both our chart and, ironically, the chart somehow claiming that the diphtheria-pertussis vaccine caused more cases of polio agree that polio morbidity was climbing. One reason for the steep decline after 1920 is the invention of the Iron Lung, that saved the lives of polio victims who would otherwise have died on the spot. Patients also had better access to doctors and hospitals and, for the latter half of this chart, antibiotic treatment of secondary infections. Why this is a point against polio vaccination which can drive mortality all the way down to zero is a complete mystery—unless, of course, the idea is to fool you into thinking that in the pre-vaccine era polio morbidity, with associated permanent paralysis, was going to zero at the same time, even when their own adjacent chart shows the opposite. Death was not the only life-changing outcome from polio: there were 20,000 cases of permanent paralysis from polio in the United States, just in 1952.
5. At the Last Gasp, Botch the Math
Given the evidence that the number of cases of these diseases declined drastically after the introduction of vaccines, antivac-ers tend to change the subject. Their reasoning skills, however, don’t improve.
Table 1 at the end of Dr Witt’s document shows the percent of cases in the vaccinated, and it as follows: 86% age 2-7, 86% age 8-12, 62% age 13-18, 81% age 2-18. So now you know who gets more pertussis. It is not the unvaccinated.
The implication is that the pertussis vaccine doesn’t work, but the correct conclusion is that the pertussis vaccine does not always work. (No one ever claimed otherwise.) The numbers here are about what we expect when the vaccine is only 80% effective. Let’s do the math.
Take 1000 kids. 95% vac rate. Make the vaccine 80% effective. That says the susceptible population is 50 un-vaccinated kids and 190 unsuccessfully vaccinated kids. That means that, on average, the cohort of sick kids will be 190/240=79% vaccinated! In other words, the very fact that the number of unvac-ed kids is minuscule makes it more likely that those kids who do get sick come from unsuccessful vaccinations.
For vaccines that are more effective, even this seeming paradox does not occur. In the recent measles outbreak in the New York Ultra-Orthodox Jewish community, every victim was un-vaccinated, either too young or by refusal!
The percentage to look at is not the number of vaccinated children in the sick group, but the comparative likelihood that an unvaccinated child gets sick. Dr. Witt’s complete study is available free online. The very same Table 1 shows that un-vaccinated or under-vaccinated children were, with 99% significance, twice as likely to get sick. Indeed, that was the purpose of Table 1; see the screenshot for yourself.
The author of this particular antivac travesty is a genuine M.D. turned quack. You can not become a doctor in the United States without a statistics class; in fact, she needed to understand the table well enough to derive the fact the majority of sick children were correctly vaccinated. So, why would she do this? A trip through antivac country shows that not only do they not believe vaccines work, they don’t want vaccines to work. The reasoning behind this selfish, fortunately false, belief is a good essay for another day.
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HAPPY THANKSGIVING TO EVERYONE!
Today I am not as thankful for this particular day… but for those that I have had in my life. When both my parents were alive, when my brothers and sisters and our respective families could be together, for the time spent with those that contributed to my life and even for those who tried to destroy it. I have had great adventures and blessings in my life and great sorrows as well …
But so has everyone that reads this. I am not special…. I am human … with the same wants, needs and desires as any other human being… I am the same as those of you who read this irregardless of faith, political beliefs, gender, sexual preference, ethic or social back ground, or anything else people use to classify and divide us. And today I am thankful for the full life I have lived and every minute of it including but not limited to the pain and suffering of parts of it and the heart breaks along the way, because I truly like the end result that is me.
For those that cannot be with the ones they love today… for what ever reason.. know that just by thinking of them.. by loving them.. you honor them and they remain in your heart and mind… Thanksgiving is not just for what we have today… it is everything in our lives that has lead us to this day… and will be with us in our tomorrows. For the lives we have lived, no mater who is with us today, I hope you will find yourself as thankful as I am.
Happy Thanksgiving to all.
The Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) of the United Nations Secretariat says achieving sustainable development will require global action to advance economic and social progress, requiring growth and employment, and at the same time strengthening environmental protection.
It added that sustainable strategies need to be ambitious, action-oriented and collaborative, and to adapt to different levels of development.
This is contained in the 2013 World Economic and Social Survey produced by DESA and launched early this week.
According to the survey, ‘More than 1 billion people are still living in extreme poverty’ and though some progress has been made, income inequality within and among many countries is still rising.
It adds that inequality, gaps and shortfalls in development partnership, rapid population growth, climate change and environmental degradation have hampered efforts to achieving sustainable development.
The World Economic and Social Survey provides objective analysis of pressing long-term social and economic development issues, and discusses the positive and negative impact of corresponding policies.
Research fellow from Legon Centre for International Affairs and Diplomacy, Dr. Ken Ahorsu, says that as a nation, Ghana must focus its efforts on learning how to increase efficiency in energy production in order to make the energy situation in the country more reliable.
The building of the Bui dam has caused tension between Ghana and Ivory Coast. Ivorians, concerned about the environmental and social impact it will have on them, claim Ghanaians failed to consult them about the building of the dam.
The dam, almost 93 percent complete and the second largest hydroelectric generation plant in the country, brings promise to Ghana as it has the potential to bring the country another 400 megawatts.
Dr. Ahorsu discussed the strain this situation has put on the two countries on Joy News Current Affairs Program, PM: Express.
‘You have to inform your people and your neighbors about the possible impact, and if none of this has been done then it is not the best of situations,’ Ahorsu explained.
Ahorsu believes that Ivory Coast tends to have friendly relations with Ghana but recognizes their interest in the situation. He acknowledges the language barrier, seeing it as a social divide. He claims it is important to learn French ‘for the sake of posterity and unity of the West African south region.’
Dr. Ahorsu goes on to discuss important matters Ghanaians must take on in order to begin to rectify the energy challenge. He stresses the importance in conserving energy and spending money only on what will be beneficial to Ghana’s economy.
‘Ghanaians must put their money where their future is. We must avoid spending money on frivolous things, things that do not build up the economy,’ he said.
Ahorsu states the importance in looking at alternative energy as a nation and learning to increase efficiency in energy production.
The many ideas he has on beginning to aid the issue vary from not taxing items such as energy efficient bulbs and generators, claiming this mitigates the energy problem, to practicing energy conservation in everyday life.
Ahorsu stresses forward thinking and the importance in working to aid the problem at all times, not just when the power is out.
What is the history of Ramadan?
Ramadan is the 9th month of the Islamic calendar. The term Ramadan literally means scorching in Arabic. It was established as a Holy Month for Muslims after the Quran was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad in 610 CE on the occasion known as Laylat al-Qadr, frequently translated as “the Night of Power.
Observance of Ramadan is mandated in the Quran, Surah 2, Ayah 185:
“The month of Ramadhan [is that] in which was revealed the Qur’an, guidance for the people and clear proofs of guidance and criterion. So whoever sights [the new moon of] the month, let him fast it; and whoever is ill or on a journey – then an equal number of other days. Allah intends for you ease and does not intend for you hardship and [wants] for you to complete the period and to glorify Allah for that [to] which He has guided you; and perhaps you will be grateful.”
What are the dates of Ramadan?
Because the cycle of the lunar calendar does not match the solar calendar, the dates of Ramadan shifts by approximately 11 days each year. In 2011, Ramadan began on August 1st. In 2012 Ramadan is likely to begin on July 20th.
The ending of Ramadan is marked by the holiday of Eid ul-Fitr, which takes place either 29 or 30 days after the beginning of the month. On Eid ul-Fitr, morning prayers are followed by feasting and celebration among family and friends. This year Eid ul-Fitr will most probably fall on Sunday, August 19th.
What are the daily fasting requirements?
During the month of Ramadan, most Muslims fast from dawn to sunset with no food or water. Before sunrise many Muslims have the Suhur or predawn meal. At sunset families and friends gather for Iftar which is the meal eaten by Muslims to break the fast. Many Muslims begin the meal by eating dates as the Prophet used to do.
This ritual fast known as, Sawm, is one of the five pillars of Islam, and requires that individuals abstain from eating, drinking, smoking and sexual intercourse.
To find the specific times for Ramadan fasting, click over to this helpful tool provided by IslamiCity that allows you to calculate prayer schedules — including sunup and sundown — by entering your city or zip code.
What are the expectations towards charity?
Charity is an important part of Ramadan. The fast emphasizes self-sacrifice and using the experience of hunger to grow in empathy with the hungry. During Ramadan, Muslim communities work together to raise money for the poor, donate clothes and food, and hold iftar dinners for the less fortunate.
What scriptural study do Muslims take part in?
Many Muslims use Ramadan to read the entire Quran or read the Quran daily. Many communities divide the Quran into daily reading segments that conclude on Eid ul-Fitr at the end of Ramadan.
Can non-Muslims participate?
Non-Muslims are free to participate in Ramadam. Many non-Muslims fast and even pray with their Muslim friends or family members. Non-Muslims are often invited to attend prayer and iftar dinners.
Those wishing to be polite to someone who is fasting for Ramadan may greet them with Ramadan Mubarak or Ramadan Kareem, which mean Have a Blessed or Generous Ramadan.
Should Muslims with diabetes fast?
Fasting during Ramadan is discouraged for patients with diabetes by the American Diabetes Association.
“In keeping with this, a large epidemiological study conducted in 13 Islamic countries on 12,243 individuals with diabetes who fasted during Ramadan showed a high rate of acute complications.”
However, the study says this was not conclusive. Many diabetic patients fasted with no complications. Patients with diabetes should work with their doctors to figure out a strategy if they choose to fast.
What is the ‘goal’ of Ramadan?
In general, the practices of Ramadan are meant to purify oneself from thoughts and deeds which are counter to Islam. By removing material desires, one is able to focus fully on devotion and service to God. Many Muslims go beyond the physical ritual of fasting and attempt to purge themselves of impure thoughts and motivations such as anger, cursing, and greed.
Do all Muslims take part in Ramadan fasting?
Most Muslims believe Ramadan fasting is mandatory, but there are some groups that do not. Pregnant or breastfeeding mothers, people who are seriously sick, travelers, or those at health risk should not fast. Children that have not gone through puberty are also not required to fast during the month Ramadan.
The Following is an open letter to Mr Naguib Sawiris, who is also chairman of Orascom Telecom. He showed great courage today when he called for Egypt’s president to step down “With Dignity” and than went on and described the Muslim Brotherhood’s regime as “authoritarian, dictatorial and fascist” and called for an immediate election, under clear and transparent rules.
It was also sent to his FB account but I would imagine the chaos that account has experienced since his comments.
I wanted to say it took great courage to make the statement that Morsi must step down. But the idea that immediate elections should be held again with a population that still has never been taught the basics of democracy, I believe is a bad idea and takes Egypt back to the Chaos it is now trying to escape.
I have sent an old friend in Cairo, Dr. Axxx Fxxxx (see Facebook message for actual name), a partial list of suggestions on how to implement a process that would make democracy much better in Egypt . I tell you this because I do not know when this space will run out for my ability to write to you .
Simply as possible: the country is in chaos (an obvious statement) The Military has abilities to run the country and bring it back to stable and given how far the country has tumbled it can also stimulate growth again. There needs to be a process where a “character” like a comedy. can have weekly radio and TV show appearances (even cartoons in the paper) to teach the people in funny ways what democracy is about. A lecture will NOT be helpful in teaching the people who are already depressed. Laughter is not only the best medicine it is an effective tool in teaching. There needs to be a real effort to seed many different political parties. they need to know parliamentary procedure and democracy as well … these parties should then come together to start the process of drafting a new constitution this is a real PROCESS.
Few countries get the opportunity for a do-over.. that second chance. at an effective democracy…. THIS is Egypt’s chance. forcing new elections quickly will bring Egypt into chaos again because the people had and still have few choices and are uninformed. Letting the west bully Egypt into quick elections is wrong… equally wrong is a military that does not have a clear plan and a LONG ENOUGH timetable to implement a real plan to bring democracy to Egypt. NO PERSONS should be excluded from the Brotherhood to former Mubarak administration people … not from elections or from administering the government. the forceful sacking of all former Mubarak people in Government is partly to blame for a government that cannot function… and that time is now over.
I am an American. Raised and educated and have traveled mostly for work to 72 countries doing Strategic Planning, New Business Development,(and even Telecom/internet from China to Guinea and many other countries… I believe you may know me or at least KNOW OF ME from those days) .
I have observed with skepticism US foreign policy for about 20 years now .. regardless of Republican or Democrat. I hold no favorites or prejudgments on any topic. I relish huge amounts of information to make determinations. Currently I only look for solutions to the issues that weigh upon Egypt. I DO NOT look to you for a job or money or anything other than your ears and eyes to understand what I am saying. I Have Been to Egypt many times. I have even devised a project to replace the water the Nile will lose if Ethiopia uses any for itself.
Basically I became a foster child of Egypt. I would like to help Egypt in this time of crisis and to see EGYPT grow and become more than what has been done to the spirit of the people the last year in particular. BUT I caution you and others: Instead of rushing into the same fire as before where the political process of a democracy and the fundamental understanding of the cost of freedom and it benefits that you all PLEASE consider that doing so will just take Egypt back to the same place it now wants to be free of . An educated public and a real constitution hammered out over 2-3 or even 5 years is better than rushing back into chaos.
Again you are very brave in saying Morsi should step down with dignity and honor. I hope you are equally as brave to suggest that Egypt needs a real transition period.
Thank you for your time.
By TRYGVE THRONTVEIT
The following Article On HuffPost LatinoVoices was very damning of both Eva Longoria and the New TV Series Devious Maids.
I tried to write a fair and comprehensive comment. Unfortunately the comment section would only take 250 words and I am quite verbose as many of you know by now. Part 2 was never “Approved” and it never posted in the comment section. I was disappointed as I even cleaned it up (no references to doing maid duty) for punctuation ans small grammatical mistakes.
For what it is worth I have posted the FULL Comment below:
Part 1 of 2
SAD and actually CATTY commentary and if this was posted by one of my daughters I would say the same thing.
But what do I know, I am a white male who has been to 72 countries has been married to 2 women who are NON white.. and had 5 NON WHITE daughters…
The show is what it is “COMEDY” at its core. It shows a range of characters who EACH has an individual reason to be in the position they are.. and let us not forget the Mother of the Accused killer… or maybe this author did not bother to watch that far.
I saw something different… I saw women who were trying to be different things and raised ABOVE the stereotype. I saw the portrayal of the Stereotype that many people have and saw it cast as offensive and demeaning.
I think MAYBE the author of this “Letter” is in fact NOT COMFORTABLE with her own Latina Heritage. Insecure in her own right putting that on anything not 100% positive and reinforcing.
For my daughters to succeed they cannot be sheltered from stereotyped perceptions of others. THIS SHOW is a comedy but concurrently gives real world views and couches them in a way as to get folks to think. I am old enough to remember Archie Bunker~ but I doubt from the tone of this Article that this author has had the same learning experience I was given.
Part 2 of 2 (the part that was NOT approved to post on the comment section for some odd reason.)
If the Author HAD experienced Archie Bunker she MIGHT have understood how Devious Maids may in fact be a learning experience for others who watch it for entertainment. But what do I know. I am a white male who still thinks of all Latinos as kitchen help or gardeners or maids.
OHH WAIT.. NP. I don’t! Why? because I LEARN. I SEE. I LISTEN. Without the prejudices that you so obviously have and want to use to tear apart rather than build up.
You, Madam Author are a product of today’s society. One that would rather tear apart than make suggestions that might make it even better. I see it in politics, and in communities, and in every day life. I see it in the Black Community, The Gay Community, the Religious community and even inside the Republican party to one another….. and now with this article I see it in the Latino/Latina (ergo my term Catty) Community. The back biting holier than thou, I rose to the top myself, mentality. So sad to see such maliciousness in anyone let alone the editor-in-chief no less of LatinoVoices
I deal with it on Morning Joe because there is nothing else in the morning. You behave almost the same as Joe Scarborough who is more divisive than unity oriented. I don’t have to deal with it from Huffington Post, LatinoVoices even though I like the HuffPost. OTHER news outlets may be less biased.
Prove me wrong Madam Author SHOW me and your readers that you are not just abut tearing things down but building things UP and at that time I may address you as Ms. Michelle Herrera Mulligan and with a new found respect.
Post note: there is a lot of reverse bigotry and racism in this country. Black against Black, Gay against Gay and now I see Latino vs Latino….. ALL fighting or struggling for a common cause. But when you disagree with each other that should mean taking the rhetoric to the kitchen table and stop putting out with the dirty laundry to air thinking it is clean.
I guess being a stupid old white male has its benefits because I can call everyone out KNOWING I will be trashed for what I say… and not caring because I don’t care anymore what others think of me or being politically correct or knowing my place… too old and too sick to care about how to say things and holding my tongue because .. well gee I am not a Latino… Ohh my…
Grow up everyone… your life is to freaking short to make articles like this mean anything but those that do, I wanted to let them and the authors know I have an opinion as well… and I do not agree this show “Devious Maids” or Eva Longoria has done anything detrimental to Latinos everywhere. NOW Jorge Fernandez on the other hand….never mind I will call him directly about his transgressions. …. Aint freedom of speech a grand thing…..
Maybe some of you saw “Meet the Press” today (Sunday June 23,2013) … but I am sure that fewer of you saw this article in the Atlantic Wire.:
The article started off wrong and made me angry.. angry enough I wrote this below in the comment section. I take no prisoners.. I call everyone out in this comment.. and rightfully so I think The real question I leave is will the press go along with extremism in so-called “Investigative Journalism” or will they grow a pair and cal Greenwald out how he has handled this situation?
The FIRST paragraph of this article make me angry. I am by no means a fan of David Gregory I hate what he has done with Meet the Press and find him for the most part a spineless panderer to people on his show who only want to spew “Talking Points” and lack substance beyond their respective political agenda…. I do NOT like him is a pretty obvious statement after that ripping.
But this article stated that Gregory insulted Greenwald and called him a criminal when NO SUCH STATEMENT WAS MADE. that is yellow journalism, the kind that is destroying the reputation of responsible journalists. he did ask Greenwald if he should be treated as one given the amount of culpability Greenwald has had in this story.
I find Glenn Greenwald’s actions reprehensible and that he admitted today that he has classified documents in his possession that could hurt the USA beyond where HE feels he wants to hurt and humiliate the USA is in effect a crime to have those in his possession.
The other information that Snowden has stolen is critical to the safety of our people in other countries and Snowden has held this over the head of the USA to supposedly protect himself … No reasonable person would accept such actions. They are undoubtedly Criminal in nature.. and while Gregory did NOT call Greenwald a criminal.. I will make that statement based upon what he actually said today.
The Freedom of the press.. and the obligation of the press in a free society has been dealt a huge blow by the actions of not only the traitor Snowden but also that of what now appears to be his co-conspirator.
I have been suspicious of all this since Greenwald first said he spoke to Snowden in February.. and Snowden was not hired until March by Booz… this inconsistency has made me wonder frequently if Greenwald used Snowden to further his “Investigator Journalist” career and to cajole or influence Snowden STEALING MORE than what was needed to prove a Whistle Blower Allegation.
The Question for me in all of this is: “DOES THE PRESS HAVE THE BALLS TO TAKE ON ONE OF THEIR OWN FOR GOING BEYOND REASONABLE ACTIONS AND MAKING THE REST OF THE JOURNALISTS LOOK LIKE UNTRUSTWORTHY ACTIVISTS.”
Greenwalds actions were WONG. They went beyond the rights of his profession and have endangered more people than care about this so-called revelation.. but what angers me about Greenwald is the ADDITIONAL information he has been given and still has.. and for that he needs to go to jail himself if not as an accessory before the fact in encouraging Snowden as far back as February BEFORE he stole or was even employeed by Booz but at least after the fact by hiding critical stolen document with malice towards the NSA and the USA.
OK Mr and Ms Journalist.. JUSTIFY Greenwald or denounce him for going to far.. the choice is yours and the public will decide who is better for being reasonable or who is untrustworthy as honor among thieves will be their motto.
And Mr Gregory, do not feel vindicated by me.. I really do NOT like what you have done to Meet the Press.. not at all.
Attempts to stimulate the Alternative Fuel Vehicle Markets by GM, Ford, Chrysler (Fiat) and ALL big Automakers are practically non existent because they fail to see the realities of the market and then fail to respond to it. At least Tesla is trying.. but it too missed the mark on its latest try by developing the battery exchange.
Maybe some of you have seen the recent article this week about Tesla:
It is a system that makes refilling/Recharging the electric battery fast and efficiently… And by “recharging,” they mean replacing.
REPLACING … as in dropping a Model S’ depleted battery pack — which can weigh half a ton — out from the undercarriage of the vehicle and replacing it with a fully charged one.
Think of it as pulling up to a filling station and instead of sticking a hose into the filler cap and refilling your empty tank, simply replacing the empty gas tank with one that’s full of gas. Only in this case, the gas station is a Tesla Station (a.k.a. a Tesla Supercharger station) and the “gas tank” weighs more than 1,000 pounds.
Tesla previewed the fully automated process at its Hawthorne, Calif., design studio. There are no pumps to pay and the driver never even has to exit the vehicle. Simply pull into the Tesla Station, locate the battery swap spot, follow the on-board prompts, and the battery-swapping machinery takes over from there.
Sitting in a pit in the ground beneath the car is a fully charged battery, which the system prepares for installation as it locates its vehicle’s existing battery pack bolts. The bolts are then unscrewed with the help of “high-precision nut runners,” allowing the existing pack to be lowered into the pit, then the new pack moves into position and is inserted into the car’s body. The bolts are tightened again, and away the car goes.
The whole process takes just over a minute and a half, or about half the time it takes to fill up the average automobile.
You can read the rest of that article here if you want to know a little more…. http://autos.yahoo.com/blogs/motoramic/tesla-launches-battery-swapping-two-minute-recharging-115343291.html
What amazed me in some ways is that it did not reference the Israeli Company called “A Better Place” who was doing this and who went out of business late 2012.
The concept is a step in the right direction…. but only a step…. and as such I had written this reply below in the comment section of the article…. BUT for some unknown reason I kept getting error messages and it would not post…. so I am writing it here:
Systems ideas enable us to manage what we cannot control. Organizations today are increasingly complex; they are beyond powers of traditional hierarchical management. Learning to manage for improvement of the system has become urgent in all fields. It pays great benefits.
Systems thinking enables continual improvement, something that old-style management cannot attain. It improves businesses, hospitals, schools, nations, families–even ourselves–in this rapidly changing, increasingly complex and dangerous world.
Amazingly, systems thinking helps us manage complexity and at the same time improve the quality of life for everyone involved.
A simple definition of a system is “two or more parts that work together to accomplish a shared aim.” The key idea is “working together” or interacting. An organization viewed as a system is not the sum of its departments but the product of interactions among all its elements, including those internal as well as customers and suppliers.
We live in and are surrounded by systems every day. This “Systems” approach solves so many urgent problems is the first obstacle to accepting and learning systems thinking. It is difficult to believe that there could be one answer for so many apparently different problems. But the fact is that there are systems solutions for all kinds of enterprises: dangerous hospitals, inadequate schools, manufacturing safer cars, unhappy families, incompetent government agencies and international commissions.
Some systems are mechanical, like cars, computers, garage doors, appliances, and toys. Other systems are biological, like plants, trees, birds, fish, animals and human bodies. Still other systems are mental and theoretical, like mathematics, physics, music theory and philosophy.
The most complex systems are social, such as families, sports teams, organizations and nations. Social systems are the most complex because they usually contain and must integrate many mechanical, biological and mental subsystems. Furthermore, managers have to engage members who have their own personal goals as well as the organizational vision. Personal and organizational goals have to be reconciled.
An interesting approach to understanding systems is to consider the difference between complicated and complex. An automobile is an example of a complicated system; it has many parts and interactions not readily understood except by an engineer or expert mechanic. However intricate, a complicated device is ultimately understandable—and predictable. Complexity enters when a human being becomes part of a system, because the behavior of human beings is unpredictable. The output of a complex system consisting of an automobile and its driver is never entirely predictable.
Focuse on complex social systems—that is, those with humans. Learn to look at a social system as a whole:
This approach is fundamentally different from traditional management, which served so well in the past. It is an original and unique theory for managing a complex social system in a rapidly changing world. It requires that we learn to see the world, organizations, our families and even ourselves—all social systems—with new eyes. This new kind of seeing looks for hidden connections and interactions, and anticipates distances in time and space between cause and effect. To see differently calls for, not new management tools, but a transformation in thinking.
Cultivation of new eyes to see larger systems and the global environment is more important than ever in our increasingly complex and dangerous world, as evidenced by the continuing global economic crisis, the difficulties of achieving an affordable and safe healthcare system, the intricacies of protection from terrorist attacks while cultivating trust with Muslim nations, and understanding the limits of technologies such as deep-water oil drilling.
Systems theory demands great emotional and mental changes in seeing the world as a system made up of other systems and everyone as part of multiple systems.
The change from traditional management to systems thinking has been compared to Copernicus’ declaration that the earth was not the center of the universe, but a planet orbiting the sun in an incredibly larger universe. That new worldview took centuries for people to absorb. Like the systems view, other discoveries have challenged conventional wisdom, e.g., Darwin’s theory that humans evolved from other animals and Freud’s proposition that we do not know much of what or why we think and feel and act. All have required decades, even centuries for debate and understanding.
In the early 1900′s a pioneer in Social Systems Thinking observed the benefits of continual improvement of farming practices taught to his neighbors by the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s extension service. This government-sponsored education in best farming practices allowed America to become the world’s leading producer of food and fiber and was the basis of our successful economy. He would later remind audiences that the West was settled by cooperating townspeople at barn-raisings and quilting bees, not by loner cowboys shooting each other and Indians, as Hollywood movies would have it. The Amish Community is similar and still exists today.
The Great Western Sugar Co. would take newspaper ads to advise the farmers when to plant, thin and harvest their sugar beets so they would get the best crop. This led Toyota to work WITH their suppliers and customers rather than go for the lowest price or highest profit.
These principles are the foundation of the success of world-renowned organizations such as Toyota, Proctor & Gamble, Harley-Davidson, Hillerich & Bradsby, Ritz Carlton, and other leading corporations.
A Dr. Deming has a System of 14 Points of Profound Knowledge, and practice of continual improvement comprise a revolutionary management philosophy, which is essential in the 21st century. Without knowledge of this philosophy and theory, no organization (or system) will compete successfully over the long term—regardless of its investment in Six Sigma, Lean Manufacturing or other quality improvement tools.
BUT things can go wrong as well.. as in the Toyota debacle of 2010 where it was widely believed that it happened because management stopped practicing the principles of Toyoto’s former Managers in favor of short-term profits and rapid gains in market share. There are similarities to the failings of the financial services industry and the sacrifice of the news media to size of market and the bottom line.
It is not an easy change to change the way a company runs or operates… nor is it easy to see the world from a different perspective than all your peers…. but always remember:
International Women’s Day (IWD) has served for more than a century now as a day to honor the achievements of women globally. But where is the Unites States on this day?
Observed EVERY Year (except in the USA) on March 8, IWD celebrations around the world, share a common thread of celebrating progress.
IWD was first celebrated in 1911 in only four European countries, where they held rallies drawing thousands of supporters. for the next 60 years it was primarily a European event. In 1975 the United Nations made March 8 the official celebration date for a global International Women’s Day. Today IWD has been used to draw awareness to everything from voting rights and protections from abuse for women and eve AIDS. Some Cultures also use it to acknowledge the women in their lives and family such as mothers, daughters, sisters, and wives with flowers, candy, cards and trinkets of affection and recognition.
As you can see from few examples below there are many ways to celebrate this day.
Many women in China will have a half-day off of work in honor of IWD, and some employers even shower their female employees with gifts, according to CNN. In Indonesia, one local organizer is sharing a song she wrote called Lebih dari Berlian, or More than a Diamond, which celebrates Indonesian women. The idea is to have young students learn the song, and sing it together every March 8 and April 21, the date of Indonesia’s Women’s Day.
In Fiji, women’s rights organizations are bringing together young girls to talk about the importance of strong female characters in popular culture and fiction. The University of Canterbury in New Zealand, meanwhile, will host a breadth of panel discussions, open to the public, on women in the media, politics, and business to honor the date.
+ According to UN Women, nearly 20 countries and territories in the region have passed laws prohibiting domestic violence.
– More than 80 percent of women in Asia Pacific are employed in “vulnerable jobs,” like unregulated, home-based work, and the UN estimates this can cost the region close to $89 billion annually.
In Afghanistan, a new Internet cafe and haven for women will have its grand opening in honor of International Women’s Day. The cafe, located in Kabul, is dedicated to Sahar Gul, an Afghan woman who was forced to marry at 14 and was abused by her in-laws. “She claimed not only her body and womanhood, but also her freedom as she resisted for months under torture and inhumane treatment,” writes Young Women for Change, the NGO hosting the event and opening the new cafe, which aims to help Afghan women communicate and connect.
Meanwhile, one event in Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan, takes friendly competition to a new level. The celebration includes contests in dry-flower arrangement, drama, cooking and dining. In Islamabad, a consortium of NGOs, government affiliates, and private enterprises are joining in the first “Women at Work” festival. The five-day celebration, kicking off on today, includes more than 100 stalls staffed by female workers from “all walks of life,” and also features traditional food, art, and entertainment.
The Turkmenistan government will honor mothers by awarding a special title and badge to women with eight or more children, according to The Times of Central Asia. More than 160 Turkmen women are expected to receive the award this year, which may include perks like free tooth replacements and public transportation.
+ Central Asia has achieved gender parity for secondary education, according to the 2011 Millennium Development Goal report.
– Data from 57 countries show that when women are a part of the police force, more citizens report incidents of sexual assault, according to UN Women. In South Asia, however, women make up, on average, 3 percent of the region’s police.
Female “footballers,” or soccer players, are invited to an event in Buwate, Uganda, to celebrate this year’s IWD. Girls have an opportunity to participate in soccer drills with the Buwate Youth Soccer club, while a similar event is held in Sierra Leone, sponsored by the Craig Bellamy Foundation. Both events aim to raise awareness of issues related to gender inequality and empowerment of women through sport.
In Bamako, Mali, some women are marking IWD with a peaceful march to raise awareness about female genital mutilation. They hope to educate men and women about the thousands of females exposed to the dangerous practice, which has powerful cultural roots but can cause serious health problems for women.
+ Twenty-eight countries have reached or surpassed 30 percent female representation in legislative bodies, and of those countries, eight are located in sub-Saharan Africa, according to the UN.
– Nearly 50 percent of respondents to a seven-country survey by the UN in sub-Saharan Africa agreed it is sometimes or always justifiable for a man to beat his wife, according to UN Women.
Eurostat, the European Union’s statistical office, released a number of gender statistics in the eurozone – ranging from gender ratios to shopping trends – in honor of IWD. For example: In every member state, the proportion of women at risk of poverty or social exclusion, which includes limited access to housing, health care or employment, is higher than men.
Specific events in Europe include a brunch for survivors of domestic abuse and violence held inTullamore, Ireland, and a UNWomen-Ireland-sponsored literary event, with a public reading of short stories featuring women from James Joyce’s book Dubliners.
In Spain, a multimedia project has been organized, where women across the country can send in photos, texts, or videos with examples of women who have inspired them. A performance of Eve Ensler’s Vagina Monologues is taking place in Brno, Czech Republic, while a “women’s empowerment workshop” has been organized in Norway, encouraging self-awareness and empowerment for participants through dance, music, and meditation.
+ Laws prohibiting domestic violence are on the books in all but four European countries, according toUN Women.
– Between 8 and 35 percent of women in 20 European countries have been physically abused, according to UN Women.
Women are invited to meet on the Dr. Arnaldo Avenue Bridge in Sao Paola, Brazil, this year, as part of a global effort, fittingly called “Join Me on the Bridge,” to bring women and men together to call for peace and equality. Last year, 75,000 people stood on 464 bridges in 70 countries, according to the organizer’s website.
Almost 60 percent of high-skilled jobs in Jamaica are held by women, according to the British newspaper The Independent on Sunday. This includes positions in politics and business, and makes Jamaica home of the highest women-to-high-skilled-job ratio. One women’s rights activist plans to hand out cards and candy to women in the workplace in Jamaica to honor IWD and women’s achievements in her country.
In Mexico – where scores of journalists have been killed since 1992, and five journalists were murdered in 2011 alone, according to the Committee to Protect Journalists – an international literary organization is leading an effort to raise awareness of the risks women writers face in the region. Efforts include writing Mexican authorities and assembling obituaries of female writers who were killed in Mexico.
+ Some 53 percent of women in the region are active labor force participants.
– The gender pay gap in Latin America and the Caribbean, largely in synch with global trends, results in females receiving up to 40 percent less in compensation than males.
A contemporary art exhibit is being held at the MISR gallery in Cairo, Egypt. The artwork by Nadine Hammam will “address the existing fears of a persistent patriarchal military dictatorship in the present Egyptian context,” according to the gallery’s Facebook page.
Honoring the day through arts is an approach used in the West Bank as well, where a series of billboard-sized photos are displayed throughout Ramallah. Five female photographers’ work is displayed in the project “we are from here,” meant to raise awareness of gender issues, according to the exhibit’s website.
And in Morocco, IWD is cause for a night out on the town. Two telecommunications companies -Alcatel Lucent and Meditel – are giving out free movie tickets so that “all women can go to the cinema” for free on March 8 [though the press release notes (in French) that tickets are limited to female clients of the phone operators].
+ Four Middle East and North African (MENA) countries prohibit sexual harassment in the workplace, including Iraq, Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia. Laws outlawing domestic violence were recently passed in Egypt, Jordan, and Morocco, according to the UN.
– Female representation in the labor force in MENA is nearly one-third of that of men. The UN estimates close to 26 percent of women are a part of the labor force.
The Canadian government’s theme for IWD this year is “Strong Women, Strong Canada.” Many celebrations are focused on honoring women who live in rural communities. “In rural and remote areas, women make up approximately 45% of the labor force, but significant gaps still exist between women and men in labor force participation rates, employment rates and income,” reads a statement on the government’s Status of Women Canada website. Events in honor of IWD include speakers, networking opportunities, and a Tahitian dance performance.
IWD is commemorated on the computer screens of people across the world as US-based Googlehonors women through its “Google Doodle.” The logo, which shows up when using the Google search engine, incorporates the universal symbol for female as a stand in for the first G, and the use of the color violet visually echoes the official logo for Women’s Day.
+ The proportion of women in the US Congress increased from 11 to 17 percent between 1997 and 2010.
– The pay gap between men and women is 23 percent in the US and 28 percent in Canada, according to UN Women. The gap is even larger for African American and Latina women in the US, between 39 and 48 percent.
When a study revealed that mercury in childhood vaccines may have caused autism in thousands of kids, the government rushed to conceal the data — and to prevent parents from suing drug companies for their role in the epidemic.
by Robert F. Kennedy Jr.
In June 2000, a group of top government scientists and health officials gathered for a meeting at the isolated Simpsonwood conference center in Norcross, Ga. Convened by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the meeting was held at this Methodist retreat center, nestled in wooded farmland next to the Chattahoochee River, to ensure complete secrecy. The agency had issued no public announcement of the session — only private invitations to 52 attendees. There were high-level officials from the CDC and the Food and Drug Administration, the top vaccine specialist from the World Health Organization in Geneva, and representatives of every major vaccine manufacturer, including GlaxoSmithKline, Merck, Wyeth and Aventis Pasteur. All of the scientific data under discussion, CDC officials repeatedly reminded the participants, was strictly “embargoed.” There would be no making photocopies of documents, no taking papers with them when they left.
The federal officials and industry representatives had assembled to discuss a disturbing new study that raised alarming questions about the safety of a host of common childhood vaccines administered to infants and young children. According to a CDC epidemiologist named Tom Verstraeten, who had analyzed the agency’s massive database containing the medical records of 100,000 children, a mercury-based preservative in the vaccines — thimerosal — appeared to be responsible for a dramatic increase in autism and a host of other neurological disorders among children. “I was actually stunned by what I saw,” Verstraeten told those assembled at Simpsonwood, citing the staggering number of earlier studies that indicate a link between thimerosal and speech delays, attention-deficit disorder, hyperactivity and autism. Since 1991, when the CDC and the FDA had recommended that three additional vaccines laced with the preservative be given to extremely young infants — in one case, within hours of birth — the estimated number of cases of autism had increased fifteenfold, from one in every 2,500 children to one in 166 children.
Even for scientists and doctors accustomed to confronting issues of life and death, the findings were frightening. “You can play with this all you want,” Dr. Bill Weil, a consultant for the American Academy of Pediatrics, told the group. The results “are statistically significant.” Dr. Richard Johnston, an immunologist and pediatrician from the University of Colorado whose grandson had been born early on the morning of the meeting’s first day, was even more alarmed. “My gut feeling?” he said. “Forgive this personal comment — I do not want my grandson to get a thimerosal-containing vaccine until we know better what is going on.”
But instead of taking immediate steps to alert the public and rid the vaccine supply of thimerosal, the officials and executives at Simpsonwood spent most of the next two days discussing how to cover up the damaging data. According to transcripts obtained under the Freedom of Information Act, many at the meeting were concerned about how the damaging revelations about thimerosal would affect the vaccine industry’s bottom line.
“We are in a bad position from the standpoint of defending any lawsuits,” said Dr. Robert Brent, a pediatrician at the Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children in Delaware. “This will be a resource to our very busy plaintiff attorneys in this country.” Dr. Bob Chen, head of vaccine safety for the CDC, expressed relief that “given the sensitivity of the information, we have been able to keep it out of the hands of, let’s say, less responsible hands.” Dr. John Clements, vaccines advisor at the World Health Organization, declared flatly that the study “should not have been done at all” and warned that the results “will be taken by others and will be used in ways beyond the control of this group. The research results have to be handled.”
In fact, the government has proved to be far more adept at handling the damage than at protecting children’s health. The CDC paid the Institute of Medicine to conduct a new study to whitewash the risks of thimerosal, ordering researchers to “rule out” the chemical’s link to autism. It withheld Verstraeten’s findings, even though they had been slated for immediate publication, and told other scientists that his original data had been “lost” and could not be replicated. And to thwart the Freedom of Information Act, it handed its giant database of vaccine records over to a private company, declaring it off-limits to researchers. By the time Verstraeten finally published his study in 2003, he had gone to work for GlaxoSmithKline and reworked his data to bury the link between thimerosal and autism.
Vaccine manufacturers had already begun to phase thimerosal out of injections given to American infants — but they continued to sell off their mercury-based supplies of vaccines until last year. The CDC and FDA gave them a hand, buying up the tainted vaccines for export to developing countries and allowing drug companies to continue using the preservative in some American vaccines — including several pediatric flu shots as well as tetanus boosters routinely given to 11-year-olds.
The drug companies are also getting help from powerful lawmakers in Washington. Senate Majority Leader Bill Frist, who has received $873,000 in contributions from the pharmaceutical industry, has been working to immunize vaccine makers from liability in 4,200 lawsuits that have been filed by the parents of injured children. On five separate occasions, Frist has tried to seal all of the government’s vaccine-related documents — including the Simpsonwood transcripts — and shield Eli Lilly, the developer of thimerosal, from subpoenas. In 2002, the day after Frist quietly slipped a rider known as the “Eli Lilly Protection Act” into a homeland security bill, the company contributed $10,000 to his campaign and bought 5,000 copies of his book on bioterrorism. Congress repealed the measure in 2003 — but earlier this year, Frist slipped another provision into an anti-terrorism bill that would deny compensation to children suffering from vaccine-related brain disorders. “The lawsuits are of such magnitude that they could put vaccine producers out of business and limit our capacity to deal with a biological attack by terrorists,” says Andy Olsen, a legislative assistant to Frist.
Even many conservatives are shocked by the government’s effort to cover up the dangers of thimerosal. Rep. Dan Burton, a Republican from Indiana, oversaw a three-year investigation of thimerosal after his grandson was diagnosed with autism. “Thimerosal used as a preservative in vaccines is directly related to the autism epidemic,” his House Government Reform Committee concluded in its final report. “This epidemic in all probability may have been prevented or curtailed had the FDA not been asleep at the switch regarding a lack of safety data regarding injected thimerosal, a known neurotoxin.” The FDA and other public-health agencies failed to act, the committee added, out of “institutional malfeasance for self protection” and “misplaced protectionism of the pharmaceutical industry.”
The story of how government health agencies colluded with Big Pharma to hide the risks of thimerosal from the public is a chilling case study of institutional arrogance, power and greed. I was drawn into the controversy only reluctantly. As an attorney and environmentalist who has spent years working on issues of mercury toxicity, I frequently met mothers of autistic children who were absolutely convinced that their kids had been injured by vaccines. Privately, I was skeptical. I doubted that autism could be blamed on a single source, and I certainly understood the government’s need to reassure parents that vaccinations are safe; the eradication of deadly childhood diseases depends on it. I tended to agree with skeptics like Rep. Henry Waxman, a Democrat from California, who criticized his colleagues on the House Government Reform Committee for leaping to conclusions about autism and vaccinations. “Why should we scare people about immunization,” Waxman pointed out at one hearing, “until we know the facts?”
It was only after reading the Simpsonwood transcripts, studying the leading scientific research and talking with many of the nation’s preeminent authorities on mercury that I became convinced that the link between thimerosal and the epidemic of childhood neurological disorders is real. Five of my own children are members of the Thimerosal Generation — those born between 1989 and 2003 — who received heavy doses of mercury from vaccines. “The elementary grades are overwhelmed with children who have symptoms of neurological or immune-system damage,” Patti White, a school nurse, told the House Government Reform Committee in 1999. “Vaccines are supposed to be making us healthier; however, in 25 years of nursing I have never seen so many damaged, sick kids. Something very, very wrong is happening to our children.” More than 500,000 kids currently suffer from autism, and pediatricians diagnose more than 40,000 new cases every year. The disease was unknown until 1943, when it was identified and diagnosed among 11 children born in the months after thimerosal was first added to baby vaccines in 1931.
Some skeptics dispute that the rise in autism is caused by thimerosal-tainted vaccinations. They argue that the increase is a result of better diagnosis — a theory that seems questionable at best, given that most of the new cases of autism are clustered within a single generation of children. “If the epidemic is truly an artifact of poor diagnosis,” scoffs Dr. Boyd Haley, one of the world’s authorities on mercury toxicity, “then where are all the 20-year-old autistics?” Other researchers point out that Americans are exposed to a greater cumulative “load” of mercury than ever before, from contaminated fish to dental fillings, and suggest that thimerosal in vaccines may be only part of a much larger problem. It’s a concern that certainly deserves far more attention than it has received — but it overlooks the fact that the mercury concentrations in vaccines dwarf other sources of exposure to our children.
What is most striking is the lengths to which many of the leading detectives have gone to ignore — and cover up — the evidence against thimerosal. From the very beginning, the scientific case against the mercury additive has been overwhelming. The preservative, which is used to stem fungi and bacterial growth in vaccines, contains ethylmercury, a potent neurotoxin. Truckloads of studies have shown that mercury tends to accumulate in the brains of primates and other animals after they are injected with vaccines — and that the developing brains of infants are particularly susceptible. In 1977, a Russian study found that adults exposed to much lower concentrations of ethylmercury than those given to American children still suffered brain damage years later. Russia banned thimerosal from children’s vaccines 20 years ago, and Denmark, Austria, Japan, Great Britain and all the Scandinavian countries have since followed suit.
“You couldn’t even construct a study that shows thimerosal is safe,” says Haley, who heads the chemistry department at the University of Kentucky. “It’s just too darn toxic. If you inject thimerosal into an animal, its brain will sicken. If you apply it to living tissue, the cells die. If you put it in a petri dish, the culture dies. Knowing these things, it would be shocking if one could inject it into an infant without causing damage.”
Internal documents reveal that Eli Lilly, which first developed thimerosal, knew from the start that its product could cause damage — and even death — in both animals and humans. In 1930, the company tested thimerosal by administering it to 22 patients with terminal meningitis, all of whom died within weeks of being injected — a fact Lilly didn’t bother to report in its study declaring thimerosal safe. In 1935, researchers at another vaccine manufacturer, Pittman-Moore, warned Lilly that its claims about thimerosal’s safety “did not check with ours.” Half the dogs Pittman injected with thimerosal-based vaccines became sick, leading researchers there to declare the preservative “unsatisfactory as a serum intended for use on dogs.”
In the decades that followed, the evidence against thimerosal continued to mount. During the Second World War, when the Department of Defense used the preservative in vaccines on soldiers, it required Lilly to label it “poison.” In 1967, a study in Applied Microbiology found that thimerosal killed mice when added to injected vaccines. Four years later, Lilly’s own studies discerned that thimerosal was “toxic to tissue cells” in concentrations as low as one part per million — 100 times weaker than the concentration in a typical vaccine. Even so, the company continued to promote thimerosal as “nontoxic” and also incorporated it into topical disinfectants. In 1977, 10 babies at a Toronto hospital died when an antiseptic preserved with thimerosal was dabbed onto their umbilical cords.
In 1982, the FDA proposed a ban on over-the-counter products that contained thimerosal, and in 1991 the agency considered banning it from animal vaccines. But tragically, that same year, the CDC recommended that infants be injected with a series of mercury-laced vaccines. Newborns would be vaccinated for hepatitis B within 24 hours of birth, and 2-month-old infants would be immunized for haemophilus influenzae B and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis.
The drug industry knew the additional vaccines posed a danger. The same year that the CDC approved the new vaccines, Dr. Maurice Hilleman, one of the fathers of Merck’s vaccine programs, warned the company that 6-month-olds who were administered the shots would suffer dangerous exposure to mercury. He recommended that thimerosal be discontinued, “especially when used on infants and children,” noting that the industry knew of nontoxic alternatives. “The best way to go,” he added, “is to switch to dispensing the actual vaccines without adding preservatives.”
For Merck and other drug companies, however, the obstacle was money. Thimerosal enables the pharmaceutical industry to package vaccines in vials that contain multiple doses, which require additional protection because they are more easily contaminated by multiple needle entries. The larger vials cost half as much to produce as smaller, single-dose vials, making it cheaper for international agencies to distribute them to impoverished regions at risk of epidemics. Faced with this “cost consideration,” Merck ignored Hilleman’s warnings, and government officials continued to push more and more thimerosal-based vaccines for children. Before 1989, American preschoolers received only three vaccinations — for polio, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and measles-mumps-rubella. A decade later, thanks to federal recommendations, children were receiving a total of 22 immunizations by the time they reached first grade.
As the number of vaccines increased, the rate of autism among children exploded. During the 1990s, 40 million children were injected with thimerosal-based vaccines, receiving unprecedented levels of mercury during a period critical for brain development. Despite the well-documented dangers of thimerosal, it appears that no one bothered to add up the cumulative dose of mercury that children would receive from the mandated vaccines. “What took the FDA so long to do the calculations?” Peter Patriarca, director of viral products for the agency, asked in an e-mail to the CDC in 1999. “Why didn’t CDC and the advisory bodies do these calculations when they rapidly expanded the childhood immunization schedule?”
But by that time, the damage was done. Infants who received all their vaccines, plus boosters, by the age of 6 months were being injected with levels of ethylmercury 187 times greater than the EPA’s limit for daily exposure to methylmercury, a related neurotoxin. Although the vaccine industry insists that ethylmercury poses little danger because it breaks down rapidly and is removed by the body, several studies — including one published in April by the National Institutes of Health — suggest that ethylmercury is actually more toxic to developing brains and stays in the brain longer than methylmercury.
Officials responsible for childhood immunizations insist that the additional vaccines were necessary to protect infants from disease and that thimerosal is still essential in developing nations, which, they often claim, cannot afford the single-dose vials that don’t require a preservative. Dr. Paul Offit, one of CDC’s top vaccine advisors, told me, “I think if we really have an influenza pandemic — and certainly we will in the next 20 years, because we always do — there’s no way on God’s earth that we immunize 280 million people with single-dose vials. There has to be multidose vials.”
But while public-health officials may have been well-intentioned, many of those on the CDC advisory committee who backed the additional vaccines had close ties to the industry. Dr. Sam Katz, the committee’s chair, was a paid consultant for most of the major vaccine makers and shares a patent on a measles vaccine with Merck, which also manufactures the hepatitis B vaccine. Dr. Neal Halsey, another committee member, worked as a researcher for the vaccine companies and received honoraria from Abbott Labs for his research on the hepatitis B vaccine.
Indeed, in the tight circle of scientists who work on vaccines, such conflicts of interest are common. Rep. Burton says that the CDC “routinely allows scientists with blatant conflicts of interest to serve on intellectual advisory committees that make recommendations on new vaccines,” even though they have “interests in the products and companies for which they are supposed to be providing unbiased oversight.” The House Government Reform Committee discovered that four of the eight CDC advisors who approved guidelines for a rotavirus vaccine laced with thimerosal “had financial ties to the pharmaceutical companies that were developing different versions of the vaccine.”
Offit, who shares a patent on the vaccine, acknowledged to me that he “would make money” if his vote to approve it eventually leads to a marketable product. But he dismissed my suggestion that a scientist’s direct financial stake in CDC approval might bias his judgment. “It provides no conflict for me,” he insists. “I have simply been informed by the process, not corrupted by it. When I sat around that table, my sole intent was trying to make recommendations that best benefited the children in this country. It’s offensive to say that physicians and public-health people are in the pocket of industry and thus are making decisions that they know are unsafe for children. It’s just not the way it works.”
Other vaccine scientists and regulators gave me similar assurances. Like Offit, they view themselves as enlightened guardians of children’s health, proud of their “partnerships” with pharmaceutical companies, immune to the seductions of personal profit, besieged by irrational activists whose anti-vaccine campaigns are endangering children’s health. They are often resentful of questioning. “Science,” says Offit, “is best left to scientists.”
Still, some government officials were alarmed by the apparent conflicts of interest. In his e-mail to CDC administrators in 1999, Paul Patriarca of the FDA blasted federal regulators for failing to adequately scrutinize the danger posed by the added baby vaccines. “I’m not sure there will be an easy way out of the potential perception that the FDA, CDC and immunization-policy bodies may have been asleep at the switch re: thimerosal until now,” Patriarca wrote. The close ties between regulatory officials and the pharmaceutical industry, he added, “will also raise questions about various advisory bodies regarding aggressive recommendations for use” of thimerosal in child vaccines.
If federal regulators and government scientists failed to grasp the potential risks of thimerosal over the years, no one could claim ignorance after the secret meeting at Simpsonwood. But rather than conduct more studies to test the link to autism and other forms of brain damage, the CDC placed politics over science. The agency turned its database on childhood vaccines — which had been developed largely at taxpayer expense — over to a private agency, America’s Health Insurance Plans, ensuring that it could not be used for additional research. It also instructed the Institute of Medicine, an advisory organization that is part of the National Academy of Sciences, to produce a study debunking the link between thimerosal and brain disorders. The CDC “wants us to declare, well, that these things are pretty safe,” Dr. Marie McCormick, who chaired the IOM’s Immunization Safety Review Committee, told her fellow researchers when they first met in January 2001. “We are not ever going to come down that [autism] is a true side effect” of thimerosal exposure. According to transcripts of the meeting, the committee’s chief staffer, Kathleen Stratton, predicted that the IOM would conclude that the evidence was “inadequate to accept or reject a causal relation” between thimerosal and autism. That, she added, was the result “Walt wants” — a reference to Dr. Walter Orenstein, director of the National Immunization Program for the CDC.
For those who had devoted their lives to promoting vaccination, the revelations about thimerosal threatened to undermine everything they had worked for. “We’ve got a dragon by the tail here,” said Dr. Michael Kaback, another committee member. “The more negative that [our] presentation is, the less likely people are to use vaccination, immunization — and we know what the results of that will be. We are kind of caught in a trap. How we work our way out of the trap, I think is the charge.”
Even in public, federal officials made it clear that their primary goal in studying thimerosal was to dispel doubts about vaccines. “Four current studies are taking place to rule out the proposed link between autism and thimerosal,” Dr. Gordon Douglas, then-director of strategic planning for vaccine research at the National Institutes of Health, assured a Princeton University gathering in May 2001. “In order to undo the harmful effects of research claiming to link the [measles] vaccine to an elevated risk of autism, we need to conduct and publicize additional studies to assure parents of safety.” Douglas formerly served as president of vaccinations for Merck, where he ignored warnings about thimerosal’s risks.
In May of last year, the Institute of Medicine issued its final report. Its conclusion: There is no proven link between autism and thimerosal in vaccines. Rather than reviewing the large body of literature describing the toxicity of thimerosal, the report relied on four disastrously flawed epidemiological studies examining European countries, where children received much smaller doses of thimerosal than American kids. It also cited a new version of the Verstraeten study, published in the journal Pediatrics, that had been reworked to reduce the link between thimerosal and autism. The new study included children too young to have been diagnosed with autism and overlooked others who showed signs of the disease. The IOM declared the case closed and — in a startling position for a scientific body — recommended that no further research be conducted.
The report may have satisfied the CDC, but it convinced no one. Rep. David Weldon, a Republican physician from Florida who serves on the House Government Reform Committee, attacked the Institute of Medicine, saying it relied on a handful of studies that were “fatally flawed” by “poor design” and failed to represent “all the available scientific and medical research.” CDC officials are not interested in an honest search for the truth, Weldon told me, because “an association between vaccines and autism would force them to admit that their policies irreparably damaged thousands of children. Who would want to make that conclusion about themselves?”
Under pressure from Congress, parents and a few of its own panel members, the Institute of Medicine reluctantly convened a second panel to review the findings of the first. In February, the new panel, composed of different scientists, criticized the earlier panel for its lack of transparency and urged the CDC to make its vaccine database available to the public.
So far, though, only two scientists have managed to gain access. Dr. Mark Geier, president of the Genetics Center of America, and his son, David, spent a year battling to obtain the medical records from the CDC. Since August 2002, when members of Congress pressured the agency to turn over the data, the Geiers have completed six studies that demonstrate a powerful correlation between thimerosal and neurological damage in children. One study, which compares the cumulative dose of mercury received by children born between 1981 and 1985 with those born between 1990 and 1996, found a “very significant relationship” between autism and vaccines. Another study of educational performance found that kids who received higher doses of thimerosal in vaccines were nearly three times as likely to be diagnosed with autism and more than three times as likely to suffer from speech disorders and mental retardation. Another soon-to-be-published study shows that autism rates are in decline following the recent elimination of thimerosal from most vaccines.
As the federal government worked to prevent scientists from studying vaccines, others have stepped in to study the link to autism. In April, reporter Dan Olmsted of UPI undertook one of the more interesting studies himself. Searching for children who had not been exposed to mercury in vaccines — the kind of population that scientists typically use as a “control” in experiments — Olmsted scoured the Amish of Lancaster County, Penn., who refuse to immunize their infants. Given the national rate of autism, Olmsted calculated that there should be 130 autistics among the Amish. He found only four. One had been exposed to high levels of mercury from a power plant. The other three — including one child adopted from outside the Amish community — had received their vaccines.
At the state level, many officials have also conducted in-depth reviews of thimerosal. While the Institute of Medicine was busy whitewashing the risks, the Iowa Legislature was carefully combing through all of the available scientific and biological data. “After three years of review, I became convinced there was sufficient credible research to show a link between mercury and the increased incidences in autism,” says state Sen. Ken Veenstra, a Republican who oversaw the investigation. “The fact that Iowa’s 700 percent increase in autism began in the 1990s, right after more and more vaccines were added to the children’s vaccine schedules, is solid evidence alone.” Last year, Iowa became the first state to ban mercury in vaccines, followed by California. Similar bans are now under consideration in 32 other states.
But instead of following suit, the FDA continues to allow manufacturers to include thimerosal in scores of over-the-counter medications as well as steroids and injected collagen. Even more alarming, the government continues to ship vaccines preserved with thimerosal to developing countries — some of which are now experiencing a sudden explosion in autism rates. In China, where the disease was virtually unknown prior to the introduction of thimerosal by U.S. drug manufacturers in 1999, news reports indicate that there are now more than 1.8 million autistics. Although reliable numbers are hard to come by, autistic disorders also appear to be soaring in India, Argentina, Nicaragua and other developing countries that are now using thimerosal-laced vaccines. The World Health Organization continues to insist thimerosal is safe, but it promises to keep the possibility that it is linked to neurological disorders “under review.”
I devoted time to study this issue because I believe that this is a moral crisis that must be addressed. If, as the evidence suggests, our public-health authorities knowingly allowed the pharmaceutical industry to poison an entire generation of American children, their actions arguably constitute one of the biggest scandals in the annals of American medicine. “The CDC is guilty of incompetence and gross negligence,” says Mark Blaxill, vice president of Safe Minds, a nonprofit organization concerned about the role of mercury in medicines. “The damage caused by vaccine exposure is massive. It’s bigger than asbestos, bigger than tobacco, bigger than anything you’ve ever seen.” It’s hard to calculate the damage to our country — and to the international efforts to eradicate epidemic diseases — if Third World nations come to believe that America’s most heralded foreign-aid initiative is poisoning their children. It’s not difficult to predict how this scenario will be interpreted by America’s enemies abroad. The scientists and researchers — many of them sincere, even idealistic — who are participating in efforts to hide the science on thimerosal claim that they are trying to advance the lofty goal of protecting children in developing nations from disease pandemics. They are badly misguided. Their failure to come clean on thimerosal will come back horribly to haunt our country and the world’s poorest populations.
Robert F. Kennedy Jr. is senior attorney for the Natural Resources Defense Council, chief prosecuting attorney for Riverkeeper and president of Waterkeeper Alliance. He is the co-author of “The Riverkeepers.”
Also watch Robert Kennedy on the Vaccine Autism Coverup:
50 years later, a reinterpretation of JFK’s famous words
On January 20, 1961, President John F. Kennedy was sworn in as the 35th president, and uttered the most notable inaugural line in history. “Ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country.” In under 14 minutes, President Kennedy delivered a moving speech that left a lasting impact on every American, including MSNBC’s Lawrence O’Donnell.
After taking the oath of office at Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C., Kennedy told the country that day, “We shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, to assure the survival and success of liberty.”
In honor of Presidents Day, Harvard University tweeted a link to a new version of Kennedy’s inaugural address–a video released two years ago celebrating the 50th anniversary of Kennedy’s legacy. Titled “Let the Word Go Forth,” the video, produced by the Harvard Kennedy School, commemorates the Kennedy presidency and recreates his inaugural address featuring many familiar faces and voices.
You can watch the full video below.
Predictions for 2013 the Year of the Snake Heaven Luck – by Edgar Lok Tin Yung – Dec 2012
Most Chinese Astrology Consultants or Feng Shui Masters nowadays just use the ‘Start of Spring (立春日)’ day and time plus the year and month in Lunar Calendar to construct a Four Pillars chart to predict events for the coming year.
In my opinion, using the ‘Start of Spring day’ and time to predict for the coming year is wrong. The Four Pillar chart is to predict personal luck. It does not predict Heaven Luck or world issues. Yearly prediction should use the Jia zi (甲子) cycles (Sexagenary cycle) and look at three different levels using the elements of heavenly Stem and earthly branch of the year. The three levels are:
1. The Heaven Luck (predicts major issues of the world and weather).
2. The Earth Luck (Arranges home and office using Feng Shui.).
3. The Man Luck (predicts individual luck in the year of snake).
There will be articles for each topic. Here is the Heaven luck.
2013 The Heaven Luck
Heaven Luck is to predict major world events and weather in the following year. The energy kicks in when the Earth is passing the Winter Solstice, normally on the 21st or 22nd in December each year.
In 2012 year of the Dragon predictions, I mentioned: “According to calculation, the year of the Snake 2013 will be even worse in term of natural disasters.”
So let see what may happen.
The Heavenly Stem for 2013 year of the Snake is Yin Water Gui (癸).
The Earthly Branch underneath is Fire Si (巳) and its animal sign is Snake. The hidden elements are Earth and Metal.
Yin Water sits on Fire is in conflict. The Fire element underneath is controlled by the Water. So the Fire element is weakening. This means the bottom level will be suppressed by the top levels.
Regardless public or private organizations, the top levels will suppress the bottom levels, especially in the second half of the year in 2013.
With the elements of the stem and branch combine, we get these pictures.
There are a few things we can predict from these pictures.
1. There will be fire burning out of control, most likely in South East area.
2. There will be electricity problem.
3. Severe volcano eruption and brings earthquake most likely in South America or Europe.
This is the Chinese character of Si 巳. Its animal sign is snake. Snake is a long animal.
Snake symbolizes a train. So we may see more accidents in relation to trains, such derailing or train crash, railway problems.
There are 177 at-grade rail road level crossings within Melbourne’s metropolitan rail network. There may be more incidents related to railways crossing in the year of Snake.
June 4, 1989 year of the Snake – Ufa train disaster, Soviet Union: 575 people are killed and over 600 wounded when two trains pass near a leaking natural gas line which explodes. (fire)
Snake symbolizes Roller coaster. There are incidents related to roller coaster from theme parks located in Europe or in South America.
In health issue, Fire element could be circulation system, small intestines, and eyes including iris and cornea, and hearts problems. We will see more such incidents happen during the year of the snake. For your own health benefit, I suggest you take health supplements such as Omega 3 fish oil, vitamin C, E to reduce cholesterol and prevent blockage of the arteries.
Snake is a symbol generally used by the medical research fields. So there will be discovery of new drugs or inventions in cure of heart disease or blood circulation system issues.
Snake is the birth place of Metal.
Metal is one of the hidden elements stores inside the Snake. It will be pulled out in the rooster month (September 2013). The metal industries will become active again. Metal industries include mining (gold, silver, iron ore, copper), banking, and finance. Such commodities price will go up.
Metal is also weapons. Metal hidden in the Snake (fire) is related to nuclear explosion, nuclear disasters or nuclear testing. It is most likely to be happened in the Rooster and Dog (September October) month in 2013. There were 2 tests done in October, 1953 Year of the Snake at Emu Field South Australia.
The Joy is suppressed, be kind!
The year of the Snake 2013, Yin water sits on Fire. In Five Element theory Fire represents joy and courtesy. Water is Fear.
The Water on top suppresses the fire below (Joy and Courtesy), so people will be easily impatient and rude. There will be lots of rebels or protests all over the world. Protesters may use fire, fuel bombs, setting fire, setting explosive…
The bridge element for the year of the Snake is Wood. As Water feed wood and wood feed Fire. Wood can reduce the conflict between Water and Fire. The wood represents kindness in Five element. So the top levels must be kind to their subordinates. Leaders must implement kind policy for their citizens.
Be very careful in May, August and November 2013 if you are speculating on the share market. Transportation, aviation, logistic, shipping, retail stocks will not be doing well in 2013.
2012 and 2013 “Long Flow Water”
“壬辰癸巳长流水”this means the Heavenly Stem and Earthly Branch combine and they produce WATER element for 2012 and 2013. It has a special name called “Long Flow Water”. This means that water flows persistently in 2012, 2013.
Again there are water problems.
So, incidents related to water, logistics, transportation, flooding, tsunamis, avalanches will be still on the news a lot in the year of the Snake.
In addition, 2013 year of the Snake, same as the year of the Dragon, it has 10 dragons producing water. Each year the more the dragons (maximum up to 12) produce water, the more rainfall it produces for the year.
In 2013 year of the snake, the annual Feng Shui flying star number 5 (5 Yellow) is located in the centre palace.
Annual star 5 Yellow is Earth element. It represents misfortune and obstacles. Earth is the digestive system. There will be more cases of gastro / food poisoning problem.
When you are travelling, make sure you eat fresh and hygienic food, especially if you were born in the year of the Pig.
If you avoid the big Sha Qi, activate the number-6 (power) star and number-8 (money) star, you will have a nice year of the Snake to come.
Earth Luck is the Feng Shui components of our house and office in the year of the Snake. It is to deal with the good and bad energy / Qi where we live, work and play. We need to activate the good energy / Qi and balance the bad energy /Qi.
Each year, there are three big Sha (煞氣Bad Energy) and two lucky stars flying around. These three Sha have the power to override any natal flying stars chart combination regardless how good the flying star chart was. These three Sha are called the Grand duke or Tai Sui(太歲), Three-killings (三煞) and Five Yellow (五黃). The two positive energy or lucky stars are number 6 and 8. Here are the positions for the good and bad energy in the year of the Snake around your house.
1. Tai Sui (Grand Duke). It is located at the Southeast South. Snake Position.
2. San Sha (Three-killings) arrives at the East.
3. Five Yellow. It is landed at the middle palace.
4. The power and promotion star number 6 is at Northwest.
5. The money and prosperity star number 8 is at Northeast.
A Feng Shui saying stated that: “Avoid big Sha. Cure medium Sha. Neglect tiny Sha.” (大煞宜避, 中煞可制, 小煞不理)
The number one rule to deal with Sha energy is NOT to disturb it. So “Move Earth”, digging ground or renovating those areas/sectors inside or outside the house is prohibited.
The Southeast South Si (142.5 – 157.5 巳字位) has Tai Sui Sha.
Tai Sui or Grand Duke is the yearly King. The Tai Sui locates at the South East South in the year of the Snake. The Si belongs to Xun Gwa (巽卦) and it is soft Wood element. It is related to the soft wood system in our body including, hair, the liver, the gall bladder, arms, legs and back, so the health issues related to soft wood element could be hair lose, liver problems (alcoholic problems), gall bladder stone, broken arms and legs if the main door is facing Southeast south. Lady’s age 40 – 59 should pay more attention if living in such facing house.
The best way to minimize bad luck and sickness is not to stir up the yearly bad energy spots/sector. Yearly bad energy is like a sleeping tiger. It will be fine if the sleeping tiger has not been disturbed. However, if the tiger is wakening up, it will bite you. “Move Earth”, renovation, will wake the tiger (Bad Energy) up, so DO NOT dig, nailing, chisel and renovate the Tai Sui sector including the floor, ground, garden, and the walls inside and outside.
If your house facing Southeast South or the main door is located at the Tai Sui sector Southeast south, be sure closing the door slowly and gently when coming in or going out, as loud noise, sound waves vibration, can trigger the bad energy too.
To reduce the impact of the Tai Sui, place a round metal objects such as round metal vase near the Southeast south facing door. If you are hanging a wind chime, make sure you use the metal one with only 4 pipes.
The Three-Killings comes to the East sector (Zhen Gwa 震卦67.5 – 112.5)
The East sector got the Three-killings in 2013. It covers a very big area. Three-killings represent lawsuits, gossips, arguments. It is at the elder son’s area (age 40 – 59).
The East sector is Wood element. In health, it is related to the arms, legs, back, livers, and hips. If a house is facing East or the main door located at the East sector, the Elder son of house would easily have such problems.
In the big scale, the East sector of China is Shanghai and further east is Japan, Korea. In 2013 the year of the Snake, it will not be very stable in these areas. There will be more water related incidents or earthquakes, Tsunamis, nuclear explosions, fire, gas explosions. There will be a lot more lawsuits, arguments or even military actions in 2013.
Make sure the East sector of the house is clean and tidy. Keep this area as quiet as possible. If the Three-killing bad energy is disturbed, there would be 3 unfortunate incidents such as health issues, career problems, traffic accidents or lawsuits.
To minimize bad energy of the Three-killing place a large metal vase or a round metal plate in the east sector of the house. Don’t keep fish tank with motor pump or large green pot plants in the area.
You cannot change the main door position but you can move yourself away from the bad energy areas.
The Five Yellow is at the Heaven heart – The Centre
The Five Yellow is a bad star. It represents misfortune and obstacle. In the year of the Snake it lands at the center of the house. This will be affecting everyone of a household. The Five yellow star is earth element. It brings issue related to stomach, digestive system, and gastro problems if the center of the house is disturbed. It is advised not to burn candles or place large red object in the center area.
The money star 8 and power star 6
The money annual star number 8 which means prosperity is located in the Northeast sector in 2013 year of the Snake. As mentioned above, it is related to finance. There are a few ways you can activate the money star.
You can move to and sleep at this area if there is a room. If there is a doorway, use it more often for coming in or going out. Place a ceramic vase or a ceramic made dog in the area. One thing you need to be aware is that at the Northeast North in the Ox position has a bad energy called “Golden God Sha”. If you accidentally nail the area, it will bring eye problem.
The promotion annual star number 6 star comes to Northwest. Annual flying star number 6 is metal element and it represents power and promotion. To activate this area you need to place 6 x 20 cents coins with the heads face upward in this sector. Make sure you wash the coins first.
All the best and have a prosperity year of the Snake!
Man luck is about each and everyone of us how we do in 2013 the year of the Snake.
Animal sign is calculated by the year of birth.
A very important concept to remember is that FULL Chinese Astrology reading examines NOT only the year of birth but also the Month, the Day and the birth hour. It is difficult to completely and fully predict just by using the animal signs or Chinese zodiac signs on how each year will affect each person individually at a very details level. Such animal sign astrology is not totally reliable as the system is only examined 12.5% (1/8) or in some cases 25% (1/4) of the four pillars natal chart.
Furthermore, the animal signs astrology prediction does not automatically start on the Chinese New Year day. It starts at the individual’s birthday. For example, a person was born in July 1980 (year of the Monkey), the year of the Snake starts on this person’s birthday in 2013 and ends at next birthday July in 2014. It is like an insurance policy calculation – always starts on the birthday of the year.
For more reliable assessment in all aspects of your life, it is recommended that to check your Four Pillars of Destiny fully with a reputable Chinese Astrology consultant near you.
Based on the yearly heavenly stem and earthly branch, some animal signs are more sensitive than the others. The most sensitive animal signs affecting by the Grand Duke or Tai Sui (太歲) in 2013 the year of the Snake are the animal signs below:
The Snake, the Pig, the Tiger and the Monkey!
The Heavenly Stem for 2013 year of the Snake is Yin Water Gui (癸).
The Earthly Branch underneath is Yin Fire Si (巳) and its animal sign is Snake. There are hidden Earth and Metal elements in the Snake.
Yin Water sitting on Yin Fire is in conflict. The Fire element underneath is controlled by the Water. So the Fire element is weakening as well as the Water element.
In health issue, Fire element could be circulation system, small intestines, and eyes including iris and cornea, and hearts problems. If there were more clashes and penalty with Day Master in the Four Pillars natal chart, it may be a heart attack or eyes problems signal.
The Si (巳Snake) is part of the Xun Gwa (巽卦) and it is soft Wood element. It is related to the soft wood system in our body including, hair, the liver, the gall bladder, arms, legs and the back. The Yin fire element brings issues more for female.
For all animal signs firstly, as wood element is the bridge element for the year , so eat more fruit, vegetables and drink more water. This will help the digestive system to clear out some unwanted residues from the body. As the result it will make you healthier.
More exercises, but not intenseness.
Snake, Pig, Tiger and Monkey should also avoid going to the hospitals, funerals. Especially for those who were born in these years: 1938, 1962, 1998, 1971, 1980, 1989, 1947.
Snake (Born in 1929, 1941, 1953, 1965, 1977, 1989, 2001)
Have a busy schedule, big pressure from every direction, especially from the boss.
Heavy workload brings resentment and mental distress.
Very high chance of having a lawsuit and lose significant amount of money.
Luckily, there is a Nobleman star for the Snake in the year of the Snake. It means someone will finally lend you a hand.
Avoid travelling to Southeast direction.
1977 year of the Fire Snake and 1989 year of the Earth Snake, those who born in these two years must pay more attention to the above issues.
1989 year of the Earth Snake, they are turning 24 years old and will face a dilemma, to continues study or not?
1977 year of the Fire Snake, they are turning 36 and will also face career change decision especially for female Snake, to pursue better career or become a mother? (In such cases, it is worth to consult with a Chinese astrology expert)
Health issues: Circulation systems, small intestines, eyes and hearts problems.
Wealth: Hope for better reward.
Pig (Born in 1935, 1947, 1959, 1971, 1983, 1995, 2007),
Animal sign Pig clashes with the Snake, especially for those born in 1947, 1959. Clash means easily confrontation with others, especially clashes with the Snake. The reason for that is that the animal sign Pigs this year will be very much doing things for their own benefit and without respecting the others. Pig becomes selfish.
Beware of lawsuit and relationship issue. There will be changes for the Pigs, such as career change, job change, position shuffle internally, school change, moving house or intensive traveling.
There is the “Da Ho” (大耗) star for the Pig in the year of Snake. Da Ho means “Big spending”. So use your money wisely and carefully in 2013. It is wise to buy something which will become more valuable in a few years’ time. Avoid risky investments in the year of the Snake.
Beware of contract terms, Check paperwork thoroughly if contract need to be signed.
Avoid travelling to Southeast direction.
For 1995 born animal sign pigs, be very carefully when driving after obtain the driving license. Clashing with the year of the Snake easily causes traffic accident particularly at railway crossing.
People who have dark and broken left side eye-brow are in higher risk.
Broken eye-brow looks like this:
Health issues: eyes and hearts problems, bladder, prostate, urethra.
Wealth: Hard to avoid the Da Ho (big spending), purchase something will become valuable in the 3 to 5 years’ time.
Tiger (Born in 1938, 1950, 1962, 1974, 1986, 1998, 2010)
Tiger is Penalty with the Snake. Easily make mistakes in the year of the snake. An elderly family member may be sick or pass away.
Beware of someone you helped turns back on you. So be low key. Don’t show off and make noise about you have helped someone.
7th August – 7th September in the year of Snake is a full penalty month. Think twice before you taking action.
Health issue: Hair, the liver, the gall bladder, arms, legs and back.
Wealth: 1974 born Tiger is better.
Monkey (Born in 1944, 1956, 1968, 1980, 1992, 2004)
Monkey not only combines but also penalty with the year of the Snake. There will be more opportunities turn up and meeting new friends.
There is a lucky star call “Nation Seal”國印 in the Monkey’s palace. The “Nation Seal” gives the Monkey more power and control in the year of the Snake. Particularly, for those monkeys got a female supervisor or boss.
Combine means new partnerships and new joint ventures. However, don’t be greedy, otherwise, you gain money and lose your friend and may lead to a lawsuit.
Beware of smear or slander and implicated by others in Feburary.
Health: Liver, back, respiratory system
Rat (Born 1936, 1948, 1960, 1972, 1984, 1996, 2008)
The changes and new opportunity came up in the year of the Dragon keep going nicely into the year of the Snake. However, be prepared and budget well for 2014. It is big year for the Rat in 2014.
In the year of Snake, Rat may win or given an award.
For Winter Rat, born in November, December, Be very careful in May and June month.
Health issue: excretion system of your body, including, kidneys, urethra, prostate for male, bladders…
Ox (Born in 1937, 1949, 1961, 1973, 1985, 1997, 2009)
Smear or slander and implicated by others in the year of the Dragon will be slowly fade away. (President Obama, Prime Minister Julia Gillard of Australia both are Ox). It is not hard to see what had happened to them in 2012.
Coming up in the year of the Snake, for the animal sign Ox, there will be new joint venture or cooperate with new partners, as a result, it brings in benefit to the Ox.
For the working class ox, you will see more appreciation from your superior.
An elderly person in the family may have some health problems.
There is a “White Tiger”白虎 star in the Ox palace. There will be minor medical operation or caesarean section for female if giving birth.
Health: Digestive system, respiratory system, teeth.
Wealth: Pay rise or benefit from new partnership.
Rabbit (Born in 1927, 1939, 1951, 1963, 1975, 1987, 1999, 2011)
The Nobleman star (天乙貴人) in 2013 the year of the Snake will still stay with the Rabbit. It helps reduce some bad energy and bring in someone to help. “Nobleman” is our protective angels and will make everything smooth and positive.
The hidden travelling star (驛馬) is also in the Rabbit’s palace which means animal sign Rabbit in the year of the Snake has a lot more opportunities to travel. It may relate to a new job or internal reshuffle.
There is the study star (Wenchang 文昌) for the Rabbit too. This will bring good study result for the rabbits. Rabbit will be given a chance to study something new or learn a new skill.
Health issue: Hair, the liver, the gall bladder, arms, legs and back.
Dragon (Born in 1940, 1952, 1964, 1976, 1988, 2000, 2012)
Health issues, love agony and relationship problems initiated in the year of Dragon will slowly stabilize.
Still feel a bit depressed due to the year of the Dragon’s impact. Need to laugh more and do more exercises.
There is a sickness star for the Dragon. It brings health issue such as flu, tiredness, fatigue or hormone issue.
Health: Digestive system, hormone, blood sugar, kidneys, urethra, prostate for male, bladders…
Wealth: Becoming positive after Birthday!
Horse (Born in 1942, 1954, 1966, 1978, 1990, 2002)
2013 year of the Snake will bring double “Flower of Romance” to the horse. It is a good love life year for those are still single. However, do not exercise your romance luck to extreme. It may turn sour.
For married animal sign horse, it is advised to avoid going to night clubs, erotic bars and so on. Need to manage relationship wisely as there are 2 romance stars in palace. It is better to date your spouse for dirty weekends.
Be hygienic, it seems a lot of insects come to your house.
Health issues: Circulation systems, small intestines, eyes and hearts problems, especially, summer born person. (North Hemisphere)
Wealth: Much better than the year of the Dragon.
Goat (Born in 1931, 1943, 1955, 1967, 1979, 1991, 2003),
The hidden travelling star (驛馬) is also in the goat’s palace. In the year of the Snake, it brings the goats more opportunities to travel or move to a new place for a few years. It may relate to a new job or internal reshuffle or migration.
Don’t argue or dispute with your spouse, friends, colleagues or neighbours.
Health issues: Digestive system, skin,
Wealth: Good in first 6 months, then average or vice versa.
Rooster (Born in 1933, 1945, 1957, 1969, 1981, 1993, 2005)
In the year of the Dragon 2012, the Rooster combines with the Dragon; it brings more opportunities, new friends, or having a good chance to tie the knot.
In the year of the Snake, the rooster also combines with the Snake. As a result, there still will be new joint venture or cooperate with new partners and brings good result. It brings new clients too.
For the working class rooster, you will be more appreciated from your superior or may be a promotion.
The lucky star“San Tai”, 三台, will bring you fame and money in the year of Snake.
Health issues: respiratory system, teeth, bones.
Wealth: very good.
Dog (Born in 1934, 1946, 1958, 1970, 1982, 1994, 2006)
The impact of the clash with the year of the Dragon is still on. However, it fades away once your birth month arrives.
In the year of the Snake, animal sign Dog, still need to spend some money. It is relatively small amount compare with the spent in the year of the Dragon.
Health issues: teeth, digestive system and heart.
Wealth: better thank in the year of the Dragon.
Here are a few things for the sensitive animal signs (Snake, Pig, Tiger and Monkey) to reduce bad energy in the year of snake 2013.
If a female has animal sign Snake or Pig or Tiger or Monkey between 18 – 45 years old and is giving birth in the year of Snake, this will reduce a lot of bad energy and troublesome for her naturally.
Do more exercises and make sure there is sweating for every exercise.
Be more active and think positively. Go out and see more people and make new friends. Be more generous to others.
Donation of blood or having a blood test done in May and November will help reduce some bad energy.
Be nice to your parents, father or mother-in-law or other elderly, even telephone them more often will bring you better luck. Especially for the money, there will be great help from an elder female.
Be more flexible and open minded to yourself and others, be respectful, don’t just think of yourself. Change the word Ego. Equal.